Ideas from 'Letter to Herodotus' by Epicurus [293 BCE], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Epicurus Reader' by Epicurus (ed/tr Inwood,B. /Gerson,L.) [Hackett 1994,0-87220-241-0]].

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1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 2. Conceptual Analysis
If we are to use words in enquiry, we need their main, unambiguous and uncontested meanings
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 8. Subjective Truth
Observation and applied thought are always true
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 1. Nature of Existence
Nothing comes to be from what doesn't exist
If disappearing things went to nothingness, nothing could return, and it would all be gone by now
7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 1. Nature of Change
The totality is complete, so there is no room for it to change, and nothing extraneous to change it
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 5. Physicalism
Astronomical movements are blessed, but they don't need the help of the gods
8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 8. Properties as Modes
The perceived accidental properties of bodies cannot be conceived of as independent natures
Accidental properties give a body its nature, but are not themselves bodies or parts of bodies
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 1. Unifying an Object / b. Unifying aggregates
A 'body' is a conception of an aggregate, with properties defined by application conditions
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 9. Essence and Properties
Bodies have impermanent properties, and permanent ones which define its conceived nature
10. Modality / D. Knowledge of Modality / 4. Conceivable as Possible / c. Possible but inconceivable
Above and below us will never appear to be the same, because it is inconceivable
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 3. Belief / c. Aim of beliefs
We aim to dissolve our fears, by understanding their causes
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 2. Qualities in Perception / c. Primary qualities
Atoms only have shape, weight and size, and the properties which accompany shape
13. Knowledge Criteria / D. Scepticism / 3. Illusion Scepticism
Illusions are not false perceptions, as we accurately perceive the pattern of atoms
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 2. Psuché
The soul is fine parts distributed through the body, resembling hot breath
17. Mind and Body / E. Physicalism / 5. Causal Argument
The soul cannot be incorporeal, because then it could neither act nor be acted upon
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 3. Space / a. Space
The void cannot interact, but just gives the possibility of motion
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 3. Space / c. Substantival space
Space must exist, since movement is obvious, and there must be somewhere to move in
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 8. Scientific Essentialism / a. Scientific essentialism
We aim to know the natures which are observed in natural phenomena
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 1. Matter / c. Atoms
There exists an infinity of each shape of atom, but the number of shapes is beyond our knowledge
Atoms just have shape, size and weight; colour results from their arrangement
There cannot be unlimited division, because it would reduce things to non-existence
27. Natural Reality / D. Cosmology / 3. Infinite in Nature
Totality has no edge; an edge implies a contrast beyond the edge, and there can't be one
Bodies are unlimited as well as void, since the two necessarily go together
27. Natural Reality / D. Cosmology / 4. Unique Cosmos
There are endless cosmoi, some like and some unlike this one