Ideas from 'Intellectual Autobiography' by Fred Sommers [2005], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Old New Logic' (ed/tr Oderberg,David S.) [MIT 2005,0-262-65106-8]].

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3. Truth / B. Truthmakers / 5. What Makes Truths / a. What makes truths
Truthmakers are facts 'of' a domain, not something 'in' the domain
4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 3. Term Logic
'Predicable' terms come in charged pairs, with one the negation of the other
Logic which maps ordinary reasoning must be transparent, and free of variables
5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 4. Identity in Logic
Predicate logic has to spell out that its identity relation '=' is an equivalent relation
5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 1. Logical Form
Translating into quantificational idiom offers no clues as to how ordinary thinkers reason
Aristotle places terms at opposite ends, joined by a quantified copula
5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 2. Logical Connectives / c. not
Sommers promotes the old idea that negation basically refers to terms
5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 7. Predicates in Logic
Predicates form a hierarchy, from the most general, down to names at the bottom
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 8. Criterion for Existence
Frege takes the existence of horses to be part of their concept
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 1. Realism
Unfortunately for realists, modern logic cannot say that some fact exists
19. Language / D. Theories of Reference / 1. Reference theories
In standard logic, names are the only way to refer