Ideas from 'Intellectual Autobiography' by Fred Sommers [2005], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Old New Logic' (ed/tr Oderberg,David S.) [MIT 2005,0-262-65106-8]].

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3. Truth / B. Truthmakers / 5. What Makes Truths / a. What makes truths
Truthmakers are facts 'of' a domain, not something 'in' the domain
4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 3. Term Logic
'Predicable' terms come in charged pairs, with one the negation of the other [Engelbretsen]
Logic which maps ordinary reasoning must be transparent, and free of variables
5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 4. Identity in Logic
Predicate logic has to spell out that its identity relation '=' is an equivalent relation
5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 1. Logical Form
Translating into quantificational idiom offers no clues as to how ordinary thinkers reason
5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 2. Logical Connectives / c. not
Sommers promotes the old idea that negation basically refers to terms [Engelbretsen]
5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 7. Predicates in Logic
Predicates form a hierarchy, from the most general, down to names at the bottom
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 1. Realism
Unfortunately for realists, modern logic cannot say that some fact exists
19. Language / B. Reference / 1. Reference theories
In standard logic, names are the only way to refer