Ideas from 'Beyond Good and Evil' by Friedrich Nietzsche [1886], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Beyond Good and Evil' by Nietzsche,Friedrich (ed/tr Hollingdale,R.J.) [Penguin 1973,0-14-044-267-7]].

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1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 1. Philosophy
Great philosophies are confessions by the author, growing out of moral intentions
1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 2. Possibility of Metaphysics
Metaphysics divided the old unified Greek world into two [Critchley]
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 3. Value of Truth
Why do we want truth, rather than falsehood or ignorance? The value of truth is a problem
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / c. Becoming
Nietzsche resists nihilism through new values, for a world of becoming, without worship [Critchley]
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 5. Interpretation
We see an approximation of a tree, not the full detail
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 2. Pragmatic justification
We shouldn't object to a false judgement, if it enhances and preserves life
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 4. Cultural relativism
Morality becomes a problem when we compare many moralities
15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 10. Conatus/Striving
The ranking of a person's innermost drives reveals their true nature
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 5. Against Free Will
A thought comes when 'it' wants, not when 'I' want
Wanting 'freedom of will' is wanting to pull oneself into existence out of the swamp of nothingness by one's own hair
18. Thought / B. Mechanics of Thought / 1. Psychology
It is psychology which reveals the basic problems
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / c. Right and good
Morality originally judged people, and actions only later on
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / g. Consequentialism
In the earliest phase of human history only consequences mattered
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / a. Idealistic ethics
The most boring and dangerous of all errors is Plato's invention of pure spirit and goodness
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / d. Biological ethics
Nietzsche felt that Plato's views downgraded the human body and its brevity of life [Roochnik]
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / f. ‹bermensch
Noble people see themselves as the determiners of values
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / j. Ethics by convention
That which is done out of love always takes place beyond good and evil
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / k. Ethics from nature
Nature is totally indifferent, so you should try to be different from it, not live by it
23. Ethics / A. Egoism / 1. Ethical Egoism
The noble soul has reverence for itself
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / c. Particularism
Moralities extravagantly address themselves to 'all', by falsely generalising
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / d. Virtue theory critique
Virtue has been greatly harmed by the boringness of its advocates
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / a. Virtues
The four virtues are courage, insight, sympathy, solitude
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / f. Compassion
In ancient Rome pity was considered neither good nor bad
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 4. Categorical Imperative
The idea of the categorical imperative is just that we should all be very obedient
23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 3. Motivation for Altruism
The morality of slaves is the morality of utility
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 1. Existentialism
The greatest possibilities in man are still unexhausted
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 3. Angst
The freedom of the subject means the collapse of moral certainty [Critchley]
The thought of suicide is a great reassurance on bad nights
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 6. Authentic Self
Man is the animal whose nature has not yet been fixed
Nietzsche thinks the human condition is to overcome and remake itself [Ansell Pearson]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 8. Eternal Recurrence
The great person engages wholly with life, and is happy to endlessly relive the life they created
24. Political Theory / C. Ruling a State / 2. Leaders / d. Elites
Only aristocratic societies can elevate the human species
A healthy aristocracy has no qualms about using multitudes of men as instruments
24. Political Theory / D. Ideologies / 5. Democracy / a. Nature of democracy
Democracy diminishes mankind, making them mediocre and lowering their value
29. Religion / B. Monotheistic Religion / 4. Christianity / a. Christianity
Christianity is Platonism for the people