Ideas from 'Twilight of the Idols' by Friedrich Nietzsche [1889], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Twilight of the Idols and The Anti-Christ' by Nietzsche,Friedrich (ed/tr Hollingdale,R.J.) [Penguin 1972,0-14-044207-3]].

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1. Philosophy / B. History of Ideas / 4. Early European Thought
Judging by the positive forces, the Renaissance was the last great age
1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 2. Ancient Philosophy / b. Pre-Socratic philosophy
I revere Heraclitus
1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 2. Ancient Philosophy / c. Classical philosophy
Thucydides was the perfect anti-platonist sophist
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 1. Philosophy
Thinking has to be learned in the way dancing has to be learned
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 7. Status of Reason
I want to understand the Socratic idea that 'reason equals virtue equals happiness'
The fanatical rationality of Greek philosophy shows that they were in a state of emergency
2. Reason / C. Styles of Reason / 1. Dialectic
With dialectics the rabble gets on top
2. Reason / E. Argument / 6. Conclusive Proof
Anything which must first be proved is of little value
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / e. Being and nothing
The 'real being' of things is a nothingness constructed from contradictions in the actual world
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / h. Dasein (being human)
We get the concept of 'being' from the concept of the 'ego'
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 3. Anti-realism
The grounds for an assertion that the world is only apparent actually establish its reality
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 6. Nihilism about Objects
In language we treat 'ego' as a substance, and it is thus that we create the concept 'thing'
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 6. Inference in Perception
The evidence of the senses is falsified by reason
12. Knowledge Sources / C. Rationalism / 1. Rationalism
Wanting a system in philosophy is a lack of integrity
14. Science / D. Explanation / 4. Explanation Doubts / b. Rejecting explanation
Any explanation will be accepted as true if it gives pleasure and a feeling of power
15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 5. Generalisation by mind
The 'highest' concepts are the most general and empty concepts
16. Persons / A. Concept of a Person / 1. Existence of Persons
There are no 'individual' persons; we are each the sum of humanity up to this moment
20. Action / B. Preliminaries of Action / 2. Willed Action / a. Will to Act
The big error is to think the will is a faculty producing effects; in fact, it is just a word
20. Action / C. Motives for Action / 3. Acting on Reason / b. Intellectualism
The 'motive' is superficial, and may even hide the antecedents of a deed
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 4. Natural Beauty
Beautiful never stands alone; it derives from man's pleasure in man
21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 8. The Arts / a. Music
Without music life would be a mistake
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / a. Valuing life
Value judgements about life can never be true
In every age the wisest people have judged life to be worthless
When we establish values, that is life itself establishing them, through us
A philosopher fails in wisdom if he thinks the value of life is a problem
The value of life cannot be estimated
To evaluate life one must know it, but also be situated outside of it
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / c. Love
Love is the spiritualisation of sensuality
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / d. Good as virtue
A good human will be virtuous because they are happy
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 2. Happiness / c. Value of happiness
Only the English actually strive after happiness
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / a. Preconditions for ethics
Healthy morality is dominated by an instinct for life
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / f. Ethical non-cognitivism
Philosophers hate values having an origin, and want values to be self-sufficient
There are no moral facts, and moralists believe in realities which do not exist
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / g. Moral responsibility
The doctrine of free will has been invented essentially in order to blame and punish people
23. Ethics / A. Egoism / 1. Ethical Egoism
A wholly atruistic morality, with no egoism, is a thoroughly bad thing
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / d. Courage
Military idea: what does not kill me makes me stronger
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / f. Compassion
Invalids are parasites
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 4. Boredom
Plato is boring
24. Applied Ethics / C. Death Issues / 4. Suicide
Sometimes it is an error to have been born - but we can rectify it
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / a. Nature of democracy
Democracy is organisational power in decline
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 6. Liberalism
The creation of institutions needs a determination which is necessarily anti-liberal
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 3. Social Equality / a. Grounds of equality
True justice is equality for equals and inequality for unequals
25. Society / E. State Functions / 5. Education / c. Teaching
There is a need for educators who are themselves educated
25. Society / E. State Functions / 6. War
To renounce war is to renounce the grand life
26. Natural Theory / A. Heart of Nature / 2. Natural Purpose
'Purpose' is just a human fiction
28. God / C. Proofs of Reason / 2. Ontological Proof critique
The supreme general but empty concepts must be compatible, and hence we get 'God'
28. God / E. Attitudes to God / 4. Atheism
By denying God we deny human accountability, and thus we redeem the world
29. Religion / C. Monotheistic Religion / 3. Christianity / a. Christianity
How could the Church intelligently fight against passion if it preferred poorness of spirit to intelligence?
Christians believe that only God can know what is good for man
29. Religion / E. Immortality / 4. Heaven
People who disparage actual life avenge themselves by imagining a better one