Ideas from 'The Gay Science' by Friedrich Nietzsche [1882], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Gay Science' by Nietzsche,Friedrich (ed/tr Kaufmann,Walter) [Vintage 1974,0-394-71985-9]].

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1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 5. Linguistic Analysis
Grammar only reveals popular metaphysics
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / c. Becoming
We Germans value becoming and development more highly than mere being of what 'is'
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 1. Knowledge
The strength of knowledge is not its truth, but its entrenchment in our culture
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 1. Perception
We became increasingly conscious of our sense impressions in order to communicate them
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 2. Pragmatic justification
We have no organ for knowledge or truth; we only 'know' what is useful to the human herd
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 1. Relativism
We assume causes, geometry, motion, bodies etc to live, but they haven't been proved
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 3. Subjectivism
Nietzsche's perspectivism says our worldview depends on our personality [Fogelin]
15. Nature of Minds / B. Features of Minds / 1. Consciousness / d. Purpose of consciousness
All of our normal mental life could be conducted without consciousness
Only the need for communication has led to consciousness developing
15. Nature of Minds / B. Features of Minds / 1. Consciousness / e. Cause of consciousness
Only our conscious thought is verbal, and this shows the origin of consciousness
15. Nature of Minds / B. Features of Minds / 2. Unconscious Mind
Most of our lives, even the important parts, take place outside of consciousness
Whatever moves into consciousness becomes thereby much more superficial
16. Persons / C. Self-Awareness / 3. Limits of Introspection
'Know thyself' is impossible and ridiculous
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / c. Ethical intuitionism
Why do you listen to the voice of your conscience?
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / f. ‹bermensch
Higher human beings see and hear far more than others, and do it more thoughtfully
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / c. Particularism
No two actions are the same
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / d. Virtue theory critique
Many virtues are harmful traps, but that is why other people praise them
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / f. Compassion
You cannot advocate joyful wisdom while rejecting pity, because the two are complementary [Scruton]
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 4. Categorical Imperative
To see one's own judgement as a universal law is selfish
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 2. Nihilism
The ethical teacher exists to give purpose to what happens necessarily and without purpose
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 4. Boredom
To ward off boredom at any cost is vulgar
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 8. Eternal Recurrence
Nietzsche says facing up to the eternal return of meaninglessness is the response to nihilism [Critchley]
Imagine if before each of your actions you had to accept repeating the action over and over again
28. God / C. Attitudes to God / 5. Atheism
God is dead, and we have killed him