Ideas from 'The Gay Science' by Friedrich Nietzsche [1882], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Gay Science' by Nietzsche,Friedrich (ed/tr Kaufmann,Walter) [Vintage 1974,0-394-71985-9]].

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1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 4. Ordinary Language
Grammar only reveals popular metaphysics
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / c. Becoming
We Germans value becoming and development more highly than mere being of what 'is'
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 1. Knowledge
The strength of knowledge is not its truth, but its entrenchment in our culture
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 1. Perception
We became increasingly conscious of our sense impressions in order to communicate them
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 2. Pragmatic justification
We have no organ for knowledge or truth; we only 'know' what is useful to the human herd
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 1. Relativism
We assume causes, geometry, motion, bodies etc to live, but they haven't been proved
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 3. Subjectivism
Nietzsche's perspectivism says our worldview depends on our personality [Fogelin]
15. Nature of Minds / B. Features of Minds / 1. Consciousness / d. Purpose of consciousness
All of our normal mental life could be conducted without consciousness
Only the need for communication has led to consciousness developing
15. Nature of Minds / B. Features of Minds / 1. Consciousness / e. Cause of consciousness
Only our conscious thought is verbal, and this shows the origin of consciousness
15. Nature of Minds / B. Features of Minds / 2. Unconscious Mind
Most of our lives, even the important parts, take place outside of consciousness
Whatever moves into consciousness becomes thereby much more superficial
16. Persons / C. Self-Awareness / 3. Limits of Introspection
'Know thyself' is impossible and ridiculous
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / c. Ethical intuitionism
Why do you listen to the voice of your conscience?
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / f. ‹bermensch
Higher human beings see and hear far more than others, and do it more thoughtfully
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / c. Particularism
No two actions are the same
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / d. Virtue theory critique
Many virtues are harmful traps, but that is why other people praise them
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / f. Compassion
You cannot advocate joyful wisdom while rejecting pity, because the two are complementary [Scruton]
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 4. Categorical Imperative
To see one's own judgement as a universal law is selfish
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 2. Nihilism
The ethical teacher exists to give purpose to what happens necessarily and without purpose
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 4. Boredom
To ward off boredom at any cost is vulgar
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 8. Eternal Recurrence
Imagine if before each of your actions you had to accept repeating the action over and over again
Nietzsche says facing up to the eternal return of meaninglessness is the response to nihilism [Critchley]
28. God / C. Attitudes to God / 5. Atheism
God is dead, and we have killed him