Ideas from 'Human, All Too Human' by Friedrich Nietzsche [1878], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Human, All Too Human' by Nietzsche,Friedrich (ed/tr Faber,Marion) [Penguin 1994,0-14-044617-6]].

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1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 1. Nature of Wisdom
The highest wisdom has the guise of simplicity
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 6. Despair over Philosophy
Deep thinkers know that they are always wrong
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 7. Humour
Comedy is a transition from fear to exuberance
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 3. Value of Truth
Truth finds fewest champions not when it is dangerous, but when it is boring
11. Knowledge Aims / B. Certain Knowledge / 1. Certainty
Being certain presumes that there are absolute truths, and means of arriving at them
12. Knowledge Sources / E. Direct Knowledge / 1. Intuition
Intuition only recognises what is possible, not what exists or is certain
20. Action / B. Motives for Action / 3. Acting on Reason / b. Intellectualism
Our judgment seems to cause our nature, but actually judgment arises from our nature
People always do what they think is right, according to the degree of their intellect
21. Aesthetics / B. Aesthetic Experience / 2. Taste
Why are the strong tastes of other people so contagious?
21. Aesthetics / E. Art Theories / 6. Art as Expression
Artist are not especially passionate, but they pretend to be
22. Metaethics / A. Ethical Ends / 2. Goodness / a. Goodness
Originally it was the rulers who requited good for good and evil for evil who were called 'good'
22. Metaethics / A. Ethical Ends / 5. Happiness / d. Routes to happiness
We can only achieve happy moments, not happy eras
22. Metaethics / A. Ethical Ends / 6. Pleasure / d. Sources of pleasure
We get enormous pleasure from tales of noble actions
22. Metaethics / A. Ethical Ends / 7. Altruism
No one has ever done anything that was entirely for other people
22. Metaethics / A. Ethical Ends / 8. Love
Simultaneous love and respect are impossible; love has no separation or rank, but respect admits power
22. Metaethics / B. Basis of Ethics / 5. Moral Responsibility
The history of morality rests on an error called 'responsibility', which rests on an error called 'free will'
It is absurd to blame nature and necessity; we should no more praise actions than we praise plants or artworks
Ceasing to believe in human responsibility is bitter, if you had based the nobility of humanity on it
22. Metaethics / C. Sources of Ethics / 6. Ethics from Reason
Intellect is tied to morality, because it requires good memory and powerful imagination
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / b. Basis of virtue
First morality is force, then custom, then acceptance, then instinct, then a pleasure - and finally 'virtue'
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / d. Virtue theory critique
You are mastered by your own virtues, but you must master them, and turn them into tools
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / c. Motivation for virtue
The 'good' man does the moral thing as if by nature, easily and gladly, after a long inheritance
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / a. Virtues
All societies of good men give a priority to gratitude
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / c. Justice
Justice (fairness) originates among roughly equal powers (as the Melian dialogues show)
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / f. Compassion
Pity consoles those who suffer, because they see that they still have the power to hurt
Apart from philosophers, most people rightly have a low estimate of pity
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 4. External Goods / d. Friendship
Many people are better at having good friends than being a good friend
Women can be friends with men, but some physical antipathy will maintain it
23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 1. Utilitarianism
In Homer it is the contemptible person, not the harmful person, who is bad
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 1. Existentialism
We could live more naturally, relishing the spectacle, and not thinking we are special
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 4. Boredom
People do not experience boredom if they have never learned to work properly
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 5. Existence-Essence
Over huge periods of time human character would change endlessly
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 4. Natural Rights / a. Natural rights
If self-defence is moral, than so are most expressions of 'immoral' egoism
25. Society / B. The State / 1. Purpose of a State
The state aims to protect individuals from one another
25. Society / B. The State / 8. Culture
Culture cannot do without passions and vices
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / b. Consultation
If we want the good life for the greatest number, we must let them decide on the good life
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 2. Social Freedom / a. Slavery
Slavery cannot be judged by our standards, because the sense of justice was then less developed
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 4. Right to Punish / a. Right to punish
Execution is worse than murder, because we are using the victim, and really we are the guilty
25. Society / E. State Functions / 2. The Law / a. Legal system
Laws that are well thought out, or laws that are easy to understand?
25. Society / E. State Functions / 5. Education / a. Education principles
Education in large states is mediocre, like cooking in large kitchens
Interest in education gains strength when we lose interest in God
25. Society / E. State Functions / 5. Education / b. Aims of education
Don't crush girls with dull Gymnasium education, the way we have crushed boys!
25. Society / E. State Functions / 5. Education / c. Teaching
Teachers only gather knowledge for their pupils, and can't be serious about themselves
25. Society / E. State Functions / 6. War
People will enthusiastically pursue an unwanted war, once sacrifices have been made
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 1. Laws of Nature
In religious thought nature is a complex of arbitrary acts by conscious beings
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 12. Against Laws of Nature
Modern man wants laws of nature in order to submit to them
28. God / E. Attitudes to God / 4. Atheism
Homer so enjoys the company of the gods that he must have been deeply irreligious
29. Religion / A. Religious Thought / 1. Religious Belief
Religion is tempting if your life is boring, but you can't therefore impose it on the busy people
29. Religion / B. Polytheistic Religion / 2. Paganism
The Greeks saw the gods not as their masters, but as idealised versions of themselves
29. Religion / C. Monotheistic Religion / 3. Christianity / a. Christianity
Science rejecting the teaching of Christianity in favour of Epicurus shows the superiority of the latter
The Sermon on the Mount is vanity - praying to one part of oneself, and demonising the resty
Christ was the noblest human being
Christ seems warm hearted, and suppressed intellect in favour of the intellectually weak