Ideas from 'Dawn (Daybreak)' by Friedrich Nietzsche [1881], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Dawn (Daybreak)' by Nietzsche,Friedrich (ed/tr Smith, Brittain) [Stanford 2011,978-0-8047-8005-6]].

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1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 2. Wise People
Don't use wisdom in order to become clever!
1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 4. Later European Philosophy / d. Nineteenth century philosophy
Early 19th century German philosophers enjoyed concepts, rather than scientific explanations
Carlyle spent his life vainly trying to make reason appear romantic
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 7. Despair over Philosophy
What we think is totally dictated by the language available to express it
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 3. Value of Truth
Why should truth be omnipotent? It is enough that it is very powerful
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 4. Uses of Truth
Like animals, we seek truth because we want safety
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 3. Value of Knowledge
Most people treat knowledge as a private possession
12. Knowledge Sources / C. Rationalism / 1. Rationalism
The desire for a complete system requires making the weak parts look equal to the rest
12. Knowledge Sources / E. Direct Knowledge / 3. Memory
We may be unable to remember, but we may never actually forget
14. Science / B. Scientific Theories / 1. Scientific Theory
There is no one scientific method; we must try many approaches, and many emotions
16. Persons / C. Self-Awareness / 2. Knowing the Self
Things are the boundaries of humanity, so all things must be known, for self-knowledge
Our knowledge of the many drives that constitute us is hopelessly incomplete
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 6. Determinism / a. Determinism
People used to think that outcomes were from God, rather than consequences of acts
19. Language / F. Communication / 1. Rhetoric
It is essential that wise people learn to express their wisdom, possibly even as foolishness
20. Action / C. Motives for Action / 4. Responsibility for Actions
Actions done for a purpose are least understood, because we complacently think it's obvious
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 4. Beauty
Beauty in art is the imitation of happiness
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / b. Valuing life
Human beings are not majestic, either through divine origins, or through grand aims
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / d. Love
Marriage is too serious to be permitted for people in love!
Fear reveals the natures of other people much more clearly than love does
Marriage upholds the idea that love, though a passion, can endure
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / i. Moral luck
Punishment has distorted the pure innocence of the contingency of outcomes
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / d. Ethical theory
The very idea of a critique of morality is regarded as immoral!
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / h. Against ethics
Morality prevents us from developing better customs
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / h. Expressivism
Moral feelings are entirely different from the moral concepts used to judge actions
Treating morality as feelings is just obeying your ancestors
23. Ethics / A. Egoism / 1. Ethical Egoism
People do nothing for their real ego, but only for a phantom ego created by other people
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 2. Golden Rule
If you feel to others as they feel to themselves, you must hate a self-hater
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / a. Virtues
The Jews treated great anger as holy, and were in awe of those who expressed it
Honesty is a new young virtue, and we can promote it, or not
Christianity replaces rational philosophical virtues with great passions focused on God
The cardinal virtues want us to be honest, brave, magnanimous and polite
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / d. Courage
Cool courage and feverish bravery have one name, but are two very different virtues
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / h. Respect
Teach youth to respect people who differ with them, not people who agree with them
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 2. Duty
Seeing duty as a burden makes it a bit cruel, and it can thus never become a habit
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 6. Authentic Self
Most people think they are already complete, but we can cultivate ourselves
We can cultivate our drives, of anger, pity, curiosity, vanity, like a gardener, with good or bad taste
24. Applied Ethics / C. Death Issues / 1. Death
Most dying people have probably lost more important things than what they are about to lose
25. Society / B. The State / 5. Leaders / c. Despotism
No authority ever willingly accepts criticism
25. Society / B. The State / 6. Government / a. Government
People govern for the pleasure of it, or just to avoid being governed
25. Society / B. The State / 7. Changing the State / c. Revolution
The French Revolution gave trusting Europe the false delusion of instant recovery
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 5. Right to Punish / a. Right to punish
Get rid of the idea of punishment! It is a noxious weed!
25. Society / E. State Functions / 4. Education / d. History study
History does not concern what really happened, but supposed events, which have all the influence
25. Society / E. State Functions / 5. War
Modern wars arise from the study of history
27. Natural Reality / F. Biology / 3. Evolution
Enquirers think finding our origin is salvation, but it turns out to be dull
29. Religion / B. Monotheistic Religion / 4. Christianity / a. Christianity
Christianity hoped for a short cut to perfection, that skipped the hard labour of morality
Christianity was successful because of its heathen rituals
29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 1. Religious Commitment / e. Fideism
'I believe because it is absurd' - but how about 'I believe because I am absurd'
29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 2. Immortality / b. Soul
The easy and graceful aspects of a person are called 'soul', and inner awkwardness is called 'soulless'