Ideas from 'Principia Ethica' by G.E. Moore [1903], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Principia Ethica' by Moore,G.E. [CUP 1980,0-521-09114-4]].

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22. Metaethics / A. Ethical Ends / 2. Goodness / a. Goodness
It is always an open question whether anything that is natural is good
Can learning to recognise a good friend help us to recognise a good watch?
The naturalistic fallacy claims that natural qualties can define 'good'
We should ask what we would judge to be good if it existed in absolute isolation
22. Metaethics / A. Ethical Ends / 2. Goodness / b. Candidates for the Good
The three main values are good, right and beauty
22. Metaethics / B. Basis of Ethics / 6. Right
'Right' means 'cause of good result' (hence 'useful'), so the end does justify the means
For Moore, 'right' is what produces good
22. Metaethics / B. Basis of Ethics / 7. Moral Motives
Moore cannot show why something being good gives us a reason for action
22. Metaethics / C. Sources of Ethics / 3. Intuitionism
Moore's combination of antinaturalism with strong supervenience on the natural is incoherent
Moore tries to show that 'good' is indefinable, but doesn't understand what a definition is
23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 1. Utilitarianism
Relationships imply duties to people, not merely the obligation to benefit them