Ideas from 'Il Saggiatore ('The Assayer')' by Galileo Galilei [1623], by Theme Structure

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12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 2. Qualities in Perception / d. Secondary qualities
Heat and colour don't exist, so cannot mislead about the external world
Tastes, odours and colours only reside in consciousness, and would disappear with creatures
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / i. Explanations by mechanism
Galileo introduced geometrico-mechanical explanation, based on Archimedes
26. Natural Theory / A. Concepts of Nature / 4. Pythagoreanism
To understand the universe mathematics is essential