Ideas from 'Three Dialogues of Hylas and Philonous' by George Berkeley [1713], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Principles of Human Knowledge etc.' by Berkeley,George (ed/tr Warnock,G.J.) [Fontana 1962,-]].

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7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 7. Reason for Existence
I do not believe in the existence of anything, if I see no reason to believe it
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 8. Criterion for Existence
I know that nothing inconsistent can exist
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 2. Substance / d. Substance defined
There is no other substance in a strict sense, than spirit
10. Modality / A. Necessity / 10. Impossibility
A thing is shown to be impossible if a contradiction is demonstrated within its definition
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 1. Perceptual Realism / a. Na´ve realism
Since our ideas vary when the real things are said to be unchanged, they cannot be true copies
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 1. Perceptual Realism / b. Direct realism
If existence is perceived directly, by which sense; if indirectly, how is it inferred from direct perception?
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 2. Phenomenalism
Berkeley did not deny material things; he merely said they must be defined through sensations
Berkeley needed a phenomenalist account of the self, as well as of material things
Sensible objects are just sets of sensible qualities
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 3. Idealism
'To be is to be perceived' is a simple confusion of experience with its objects
I conceive a tree in my mind, but I cannot prove that its existence can be conceived outside a mind
There is nothing in nature which needs the concept of matter to explain it
Perceptions are ideas, and ideas exist in the mind, so objects only exist in the mind
For Berkelely, reality is ideas and a community of minds, including God's
There is no such thing as 'material substance'
Time is measured by the succession of ideas in our minds
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 2. Qualities in Perception / c. Primary qualities
Primary qualities (such as shape, solidity, mass) are held to really exist, unlike secondary qualities
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 2. Qualities in Perception / e. Primary/secondary critique
A mite would see its own foot as large, though we would see it as tiny
The apparent size of an object varies with its distance away, so that can't be a property of the object
'Solidity' is either not a sensible quality at all, or it is clearly relative to our senses
Distance is not directly perceived by sight
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 3. Representation
Immediate objects of perception, which some treat as appearances, I treat as the real things themselves
12. Knowledge Sources / D. Empiricism / 1. Empiricism
Real things and imaginary or dreamed things differ because the latter are much fainter
12. Knowledge Sources / D. Empiricism / 4. Pro-Empiricism
Geometry is originally perceived by senses, and so is not purely intellectual
13. Knowledge Criteria / D. Scepticism / 3. Illusion Scepticism
It is possible that we could perceive everything as we do now, but nothing actually existed.
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 3. Subjectivism
A hot hand and a cold hand will have different experiences in the same tepid water
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 4. Other Minds / c. Knowing other minds
Experience tells me that other minds exist independently from my own
17. Mind and Body / E. Mind as Physical / 5. Causal Argument
How can that which is unthinking be a cause of thought?
18. Thought / C. Content / 2. Ideas
Berkeley probably used 'idea' to mean both the act of apprehension and the thing apprehended
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / a. Preconditions for ethics
Immorality is not in the action, but in the deviation of the will from moral law
28. God / B. Proving God / 1. Proof of God
There must be a God, because all sensible things must be perceived by him
There must be a God, because I and my ideas are not independent
28. God / D. Proofs of Evidence / 2. Teleological Proof
It has been proved that creation is the workmanship of God, from its beauty and usefulness
29. Religion / F. Problem of Evil / 2. Human Evil
People are responsible because they have limited power, though this ultimately derives from God
29. Religion / F. Problem of Evil / 4. Natural Evil
If sin is not just physical, we don't consider God the origin of sin because he causes physical events