Ideas from 'Three Dialogues of Hylas and Philonous' by George Berkeley [1713], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Principles of Human Knowledge etc.' by Berkeley,George (ed/tr Warnock,G.J.) [Fontana 1962,-]].

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7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 6. Reason for Existence
I do not believe in the existence of anything, if I see no reason to believe it
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 7. Criterion for Existence
I know that nothing inconsistent can exist
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 2. Substance / d. Substance defined
There is no other substance in a strict sense, than spirit
10. Modality / A. Necessity / 10. Impossibility
A thing is shown to be impossible if a contradiction is demonstrated within its definition
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 1. Perceptual Realism / a. Na´ve realism
Since our ideas vary when the real things are said to be unchanged, they cannot be true copies
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 1. Perceptual Realism / b. Direct realism
If existence is perceived directly, by which sense; if indirectly, how is it inferred from direct perception?
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 2. Phenomenalism
Berkeley did not deny material things; he merely said they must be defined through sensations [Ayer]
Berkeley needed a phenomenalist account of the self, as well as of material things [Ayer]
Sensible objects are just sets of sensible qualities
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 3. Idealism
Time is measured by the succession of ideas in our minds
'To be is to be perceived' is a simple confusion of experience with its objects [Russell]
For Berkelely, reality is ideas and a community of minds, including God's [Grayling]
There is no such thing as 'material substance'
There is nothing in nature which needs the concept of matter to explain it
I conceive a tree in my mind, but I cannot prove that its existence can be conceived outside a mind
Perceptions are ideas, and ideas exist in the mind, so objects only exist in the mind
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 2. Qualities in Perception / c. Primary qualities
Primary qualities (such as shape, solidity, mass) are held to really exist, unlike secondary qualities
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 2. Qualities in Perception / e. Primary/secondary critique
Distance is not directly perceived by sight
A mite would see its own foot as large, though we would see it as tiny
The apparent size of an object varies with its distance away, so that can't be a property of the object
'Solidity' is either not a sensible quality at all, or it is clearly relative to our senses
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 3. Representation
Immediate objects of perception, which some treat as appearances, I treat as the real things themselves
12. Knowledge Sources / D. Empiricism / 1. Empiricism
Real things and imaginary or dreamed things differ because the latter are much fainter
12. Knowledge Sources / D. Empiricism / 4. Pro-Empiricism
Geometry is originally perceived by senses, and so is not purely intellectual
13. Knowledge Criteria / D. Scepticism / 3. Illusion Scepticism
It is possible that we could perceive everything as we do now, but nothing actually existed.
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 3. Subjectivism
A hot hand and a cold hand will have different experiences in the same tepid water
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 4. Other Minds / c. Knowing other minds
Experience tells me that other minds exist independently from my own
17. Mind and Body / E. Mind as Physical / 5. Causal Argument
How can that which is unthinking be a cause of thought?
18. Thought / C. Content / 2. Ideas
Berkeley probably used 'idea' to mean both the act of apprehension and the thing apprehended [Russell]
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / a. Preconditions for ethics
Immorality is not in the action, but in the deviation of the will from moral law
28. God / B. Proving God / 1. Proof of God
There must be a God, because all sensible things must be perceived by him
There must be a God, because I and my ideas are not independent
28. God / B. Proving God / 3. Proofs of Evidence / b. Teleological Proof
It has been proved that creation is the workmanship of God, from its beauty and usefulness
29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 3. Problem of Evil / b. Human Evil
People are responsible because they have limited power, though this ultimately derives from God
29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 3. Problem of Evil / d. Natural Evil
If sin is not just physical, we don't consider God the origin of sin because he causes physical events