Ideas from 'Trees, Terms and Truth' by George Engelbretsen [2005], by Theme Structure
[found in 'The Old New Logic' (ed/tr Oderberg,David S.) [MIT 2005,0262651068]].
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3. Truth / B. Truthmakers / 5. What Makes Truths / a. What makes truths
18915

If facts are the truthmakers, they are not in the world

18919

There are no 'falsifying' facts, only an absence of truthmakers

4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 1. Aristotelian Logic
18913

Traditional term logic struggled to express relations

4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 3. Term Logic
18907

Term logic rests on negated terms or denial, and that propositions are tied pairs

5. Theory of Logic / A. Overview of Logic / 2. History of Logic
18912

Was logic a branch of mathematics, or mathematics a branch of logic?

5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 1. Logical Form
18922

Logical syntax is actually close to surface linguistic form

18905

Propositions can be analysed as pairs of terms glued together by predication

5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 2. Logical Connectives / c. not
18908

Standard logic only negates sentences, even via negated general terms or predicates

7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 7. Criterion for Existence
18917

Existence and nonexistence are characteristics of the world, not of objects

7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 7. Facts / a. Facts
18916

Facts are not in the world  they are properties of the world

7. Existence / E. Categories / 4. Category Realism
18921

Individuals are arranged in inclusion categories that match our semantics

19. Language / B. Reference / 2. Denoting
18918

Terms denote objects with properties, and statements denote the world with that property

19. Language / D. Propositions / 1. Propositions
18920

'Socrates is wise' denotes a sentence; 'that Socrates is wise' denotes a proposition

19. Language / F. Communication / 3. Denial
18906

Negating a predicate term and denying its unnegated version are quite different
