Ideas from 'Trees, Terms and Truth' by George Engelbretsen [2005], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Old New Logic' (ed/tr Oderberg,David S.) [MIT 2005,0-262-65106-8]].

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3. Truth / B. Truthmakers / 5. What Makes Truths / a. What makes truths
If facts are the truthmakers, they are not in the world
There are no 'falsifying' facts, only an absence of truthmakers
4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 1. Aristotelian Logic
Traditional term logic struggled to express relations
Aristotelian sentences are made up by one of four 'formative' connectors
4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 3. Term Logic
Term logic rests on negated terms or denial, and that propositions are tied pairs
5. Theory of Logic / A. Overview of Logic / 2. History of Logic
Was logic a branch of mathematics, or mathematics a branch of logic?
5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 1. Logical Form
Logical syntax is actually close to surface linguistic form
Propositions can be analysed as pairs of terms glued together by predication
5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 2. Logical Connectives / c. not
Standard logic only negates sentences, even via negated general terms or predicates
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 8. Criterion for Existence
Existence and nonexistence are characteristics of the world, not of objects
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 7. Facts / a. Facts
Facts are not in the world - they are properties of the world
7. Existence / E. Categories / 4. Category Realism
Individuals are arranged in inclusion categories that match our semantics
19. Language / D. Theories of Reference / 2. Denoting
Terms denote objects with properties, and statements denote the world with that property
19. Language / E. Propositions / 1. Propositions
'Socrates is wise' denotes a sentence; 'that Socrates is wise' denotes a proposition
19. Language / H. Pragmatics / 2. Denial
Negating a predicate term and denying its unnegated version are quite different