Ideas from 'Abstract Objects' by Gideon Rosen [2001], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Stanford Online Encyclopaedia of Philosophy' (ed/tr Stanford University) [plato.stanford.edu ,-]].

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7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 6. Abstract Existence
If abstracta are non-mental, quarks are abstracta, and yet chess and God's thoughts are mental
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 2. Abstract Objects / d. Problems with abstracta
How we refer to abstractions is much less clear than how we refer to other things
18. Thought / E. Abstraction / 2. Abstracta by Selection
The Way of Abstraction used to say an abstraction is an idea that was formed by abstracting
18. Thought / E. Abstraction / 5. Abstracta by Negation
Nowadays abstractions are defined as non-spatial, causally inert things
Chess may be abstract, but it has existed in specific space and time
Sets are said to be abstract and non-spatial, but a set of books can be on a shelf
18. Thought / E. Abstraction / 6. Abstracta by Conflation
Conflating abstractions with either sets or universals is a big claim, needing a big defence
18. Thought / E. Abstraction / 7. Abstracta by Equivalence
Abstraction by equivalence relationships might prove that a train is an abstract entity
Functional terms can pick out abstractions by asserting an equivalence relation