Ideas from 'Eight Theories of Ethics' by Gordon Graham [2004], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Eight Theories of Ethics' by Graham,Gordon [Routledge 2004,0-415-31589-1]].

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13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 3. Subjectivism
'Subjectivism' is an extension of relativism from the social group to the individual
22. Metaethics / B. Basis of Ethics / 5. Moral Responsibility
We can't criticise people because of unforeseeable consequences
The chain of consequences may not be the same as the chain of responsibility
22. Metaethics / D. Consequentialism / 1. Consequentialism
Negative consequences are very hard (and possibly impossible) to assess
23. Ethics / A. Egoism / 1. Ethical Egoism
Egoism submits to desires, but cannot help form them
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / h. Right feelings
Rescue operations need spontaneous benevolence, not careful thought
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 3. Universalisability
'What if everybody did that?' rather misses the point as an objection to cheating
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 1. Existentialism
It is more plausible to say people can choose between values, than that they can create them
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 2. Nihilism
Life is only absurd if you expected an explanation and none turns up
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 5. Existence-Essence
Existentialism may transcend our nature, unlike eudaimonism
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 6. Authentic Self
A standard problem for existentialism is the 'sincere Nazi'
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 7. Existential Action
The key to existentialism: the way you make choices is more important than what you choose
29. Religion / A. Religious Thought / 1. Religious Belief
The great religions are much more concerned with the religious life than with ethics
29. Religion / C. Monotheistic Religion / 3. Christianity / a. Christianity
Hegel said he was offering an encyclopaedic rationalisation of Christianity
29. Religion / E. Immortality / 1. Immortality
Western religion saves us from death; Eastern religion saves us from immortality