Ideas from 'Letters to Antoine Arnauld' by Gottfried Leibniz [1686], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Leibniz-Arnauld Correspondence' by Leibniz,Gottfried (ed/tr Mason,HT/Parkinson,GHR) [Manchester UP 1967,]].

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1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 1. Nature of Wisdom
Wisdom is the science of happiness
1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 2. Wise People
Wise people have fewer acts of will, because such acts are linked together
1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 4. Metaphysics beyond Science
Metaphysics is geometrical, resting on non-contradiction and sufficient reason
2. Reason / D. Definition / 4. Real Definition
Definitions can only be real if the item is possible
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 1. Truth
The predicate is in the subject of a true proposition
6. Mathematics / A. Nature of Mathematics / 3. Numbers / o. Units
There is no multiplicity without true units
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / g. Particular being
What is not truly one being is not truly a being either
7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 5. Supervenience / a. Nature of supervenience
A thing 'expresses' another if they have a constant and fixed relationship
8. Modes of Existence / C. Powers and Dispositions / 2. Powers as Basic
A substance contains the laws of its operations, and its actions come from its own depth
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 1. Unifying an Object / a. Intrinsic unification
Philosophy needs the precision of the unity given by substances
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 1. Unifying an Object / b. Unifying aggregates
Accidental unity has degrees, from a mob to a society to a machine or organism
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 1. Unifying an Object / c. Unity as conceptual
We find unity in reason, and unity in perception, but these are not true unity
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 2. Substance / a. Substance
A body is a unified aggregate, unless it has an indivisible substance
Unity needs an indestructible substance, to contain everything which will happen to it
Every bodily substance must have a soul, or something analogous to a soul
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 2. Substance / b. Need for substance
Aggregates donít reduce to points, or atoms, or illusion, so must reduce to substance
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 1. Essences of Objects
Basic predicates give the complete concept, which then predicts all of the actions
Essences exist in the divine understanding
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 6. Essence as Unifier
Bodies need a soul (or something like it) to avoid being mere phenomena
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 10. Essence as Species
Truths about species are eternal or necessary, but individual truths concern what exists
10. Modality / E. Possible worlds / 3. Transworld Objects / a. Transworld identity
If varieties of myself can be conceived of as distinct from me, then they are not me
If someone's life went differently, then that would be another individual
11. Knowledge Aims / B. Certain Knowledge / 5. The Cogito
I cannot think my non-existence, nor exist without being myself
11. Knowledge Aims / B. Certain Knowledge / 6. Cogito Critique
I can't just know myself to be a substance; I must distinguish myself from others, which is hard
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 4. Foundationalism / a. Foundationalism
Nothing should be taken as certain without foundations
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / a. Types of explanation
Nature is explained by mathematics and mechanism, but the laws rest on metaphysics
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / k. Explanations by essence
To fully conceive the subject is to explain the resulting predicates and events
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 1. Mind / b. Purpose of mind
Mind is a thinking substance which can know God and eternal truths
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 7. Animal Minds
It seems probable that animals have souls, but not consciousness
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 7. Compatibilism
Everything which happens is not necessary, but is certain after God chooses this universe
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 1. Concepts / a. Nature of concepts
Concepts are what unite a proposition
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 4. Beauty
Beauty increases with familiarity
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 2. Happiness / a. Nature of happiness
Happiness is advancement towards perfection
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 1. Laws of Nature
Each possible world contains its own laws, reflected in the possible individuals of that world
27. Natural Reality / B. Early Matter Theories / 4. Atomism
I think the corpuscular theory, rather than forms or qualities, best explains particular phenomena
27. Natural Reality / D. Activity of Matter / 2. Forces
Motion alone is relative, but force is real, and establishes its subject
28. God / D. Proofs of Evidence / 5. Miracles
Miracles are extraordinary operations by God, but are nevertheless part of his design
Everything, even miracles, belongs to order
29. Religion / E. Immortality / 1. Immortality
Immortality without memory is useless
29. Religion / E. Immortality / 2. Soul
The soul is indestructible and always self-aware
29. Religion / E. Immortality / 3. Animal Souls
Animals have souls, but lack consciousness