Ideas from 'Letters to Burcher De Volder' by Gottfried Leibniz [1706], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Philosophical Essays' by Leibniz,Gottfried (ed/tr Arlew,R /Garber,D) [Hackett 1989,0-87220-062-0]].

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7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 6. Fundamentals / c. Monads
Monads are not extended, but have a kind of situation in extension
Only monads are substances, and bodies are collections of them
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 1. Realism
The division of nature into matter makes distinct appearances, and that presupposes substances
The only indications of reality are agreement among phenomena, and their agreement with necessities
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 2. Reality
Only unities have any reality
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 9. Vagueness / b. Vagueness of reality
In actual things nothing is indefinite
8. Modes of Existence / A. Relations / 1. Nature of Relations
A man's distant wife dying is a real change in him
8. Modes of Existence / C. Powers and Dispositions / 1. Powers
A complete monad is a substance with primitive active and passive power
8. Modes of Existence / C. Powers and Dispositions / 2. Powers as Basic
Derivate forces are in phenomena, but primitive forces are in the internal strivings of substances
8. Modes of Existence / C. Powers and Dispositions / 4. Powers as Essence
Thought terminates in force, rather than extension
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 5. Individuation / b. Individuation by properties
The law of the series, which determines future states of a substance, is what individuates it
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 1. Objects over Time
Changeable accidents are modifications of unchanging essences
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 7. Indiscernible Objects
Things in different locations are different because they 'express' those locations
If two bodies only seem to differ in their position, those different environments will matter
In nature there aren't even two identical straight lines, so no two bodies are alike
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 5. Coherentism / b. Pro-coherentism
Scientific truths are supported by mutual agreement, as well as agreement with the phenomena
15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 10. Conatus/Striving
Primitive forces are internal strivings of substances, acting according to their internal laws
17. Mind and Body / A. Mind-Body Dualism / 1. Dualism
Soul represents body, but soul remains unchanged, while body continuously changes
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 3. Ontology of Concepts / a. Concepts as representations
Our notions may be formed from concepts, but concepts are formed from things
18. Thought / E. Abstraction / 3. Abstracta by Ignoring
Universals are just abstractions by concealing some of the circumstances
26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 7. Later Matter Theories / c. Matter as extension
Even if extension is impenetrable, this still offers no explanation for motion and its laws
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 1. Laws of Nature
An entelechy is a law of the series of its event within some entity
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 8. Scientific Essentialism / c. Essence and laws
The only permanence in things, constituting their substance, is a law of continuity
27. Natural Reality / A. Classical Physics / 1. Mechanics / c. Forces
The force behind motion is like a soul, with its own laws of continual change
27. Natural Reality / C. Space-Time / 1. Space / b. Space
Space is the order of coexisting possibles
27. Natural Reality / C. Space-Time / 2. Time / a. Time
Time is the order of inconsistent possibilities