Ideas from 'Principles of Nature and Grace based on Reason' by Gottfried Leibniz [1714], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Philosophical Essays' by Leibniz,Gottfried (ed/tr Arlew,R /Garber,D) [Hackett 1989,0-87220-062-0]].

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7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 7. Reason for Existence
First: there must be reasons; Second: why anything at all?; Third: why this?
7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 6. Fundamentals / c. Monads
A monad and its body are living, so life is everywhere, and comes in infinite degrees
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 1. Perception
'Perception' is basic internal representation, and 'apperception' is reflective knowledge of perception
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 7. Animal Minds
Animals are semi-rational because they connect facts, but they don't see causes
21. Aesthetics / F. Arts / 1. Music
Music charms, although its beauty is the harmony of numbers