Ideas from 'The Big Book of Concepts' by Gregory L. Murphy [2004], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Big Book of Concepts' by Murphy,Gregory L. [MIT 2004,978-0-262-63299-7]].

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12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 5. Interpretation
Research shows perceptual discrimination is sharper at category boundaries
14. Science / C. Induction / 1. Induction
Induction is said to just compare properties of categories, but the type of property also matters
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 1. Concepts / a. Nature of concepts
The main theories of concepts are exemplar, prototype and knowledge
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 4. Structure of Concepts / c. Classical concepts
The classical definitional approach cannot distinguish typical and atypical category members
Classical concepts follow classical logic, but concepts in real life don't work that way
Classical concepts are transitive hierarchies, but actual categories may be intransitive
The theoretical and practical definitions for the classical view are very hard to find
The classical core is meant to be the real concept, but actually seems unimportant
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 4. Structure of Concepts / d. Concepts as prototypes
There is no 'ideal' bird or dog, and prototypes give no information about variability
Prototypes are unified representations of the entire category (rather than of members)
The prototype theory uses observed features, but can't include their construction
The prototype theory handles hierarchical categories and combinations of concepts well
Prototypes theory of concepts is best, as a full description with weighted typical features
Learning concepts is forming prototypes with a knowledge structure
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 4. Structure of Concepts / e. Concepts from exemplars
The exemplar view of concepts says 'dogs' is the set of dogs I remember
Exemplar theory struggles with hierarchical classification and with induction
Children using knowing and essentialist categories doesn't fit the exemplar view
The most popular theories of concepts are based on prototypes or exemplars
The concept of birds from exemplars must also be used in inductions about birds
Conceptual combination must be compositional, and can't be built up from exemplars
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 4. Structure of Concepts / f. Theory theory of concepts
We do not learn concepts in isolation, but as an integrated part of broader knowledge
Concepts with familiar contents are easier to learn
Some knowledge is involved in instant use of categories, other knowledge in explanations
People categorise things consistent with their knowledge, even rejecting some good evidence