Ideas from 'On Nature (frags)' by Heraclitus [500 BCE], by Theme Structure

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1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 2. Wise People
Men who love wisdom must be inquirers into very many things indeed
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 2. Invocation to Philosophy
Everyone has the potential for self-knowledge and sound thinking
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 7. Despair over Philosophy
Reason is eternal, but men are foolish
2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 5. Opposites
Beautiful harmony comes from things that are in opposition to one another
A thing can have opposing tensions but be in harmony, like a lyre
5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 2. Excluded Middle
If everything is and isn't then everything is true, and a midway between true and false makes everything false
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 6. Nihilism about Objects
Everything gives way, and nothing stands fast
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 8. Continuity of Rivers
It is not possible to step twice into the same river
You can bathe in the same river twice, but not in the same river stage
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 13. No Identity over Time
If flux is continuous, then lack of change can't be a property, so everything changes in every possible way
12. Knowledge Sources / C. Rationalism / 1. Rationalism
Senses are no use if the soul is corrupt
12. Knowledge Sources / D. Empiricism / 4. Pro-Empiricism
When we sleep, reason closes down as the senses do
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 1. Relativism
Donkeys prefer chaff to gold
Sea water is life-giving for fish, but not for people
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 3. Subjectivism
Health, feeding and rest are only made good by disease, hunger and weariness
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / e. Means and ends
If one does not hope, one will not find the unhoped-for, since nothing leads to it
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / f. Good as pleasure
If happiness is bodily pleasure, then oxen are happy when they have vetch to eat
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 3. Pleasure / f. Dangers of pleasure
It is hard to fight against emotion, but harder still to fight against pleasure
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / e. Ethical cognitivism
To God (though not to humans) all things are beautiful and good and just
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / e. Character
For man character is destiny
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 2. Duty
Universal law is common to all, but most people live as if they have a private understanding
25. Society / E. State Functions / 1. The Law / a. Legal system
The people should fight for the law as if for their city-wall
26. Natural Theory / A. Concepts of Nature / 5. Ultimate Substance / c. The One
Reason tells us that all things are one
27. Natural Reality / B. Early Matter Theories / 3. Ancient Elements
Heraclitus says that at some time everything becomes fire
Heraclitus said sometimes everything becomes fire
Heraclitus said fire could be transformed to create the other lower elements
27. Natural Reality / G. Cosmology / 2. Beginning
The cosmos is eternal not created, and is an ever-living and changing fire
28. God / D. Proofs of Evidence / 2. Teleological Proof
Heraclitus says intelligence draws on divine reason
29. Religion / A. Religious Thought / 1. Religious Belief
In their ignorance people pray to statues, which is like talking to a house