Ideas from 'The Meaning of 'Meaning'' by Hilary Putnam [1975], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Mind Language and Reality: Papers vol 2' by Putnam,Hilary [CUP 1975,0-521-10668-5]].

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9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 15. Against Essentialism
Putnam smuggles essentialism about liquids into his proof that water must be H2O
18. Thought / C. Content / 5. Twin Earth
If Twins talking about 'water' and 'XYZ' have different thoughts but identical heads, then thoughts aren't in the head
We say ice and steam are different forms of water, but not that they are different forms of H2O
Does 'water' mean a particular substance that was 'dubbed'?
19. Language / B. Reference / 4. Descriptive Reference / a. Sense and reference
Often reference determines sense, and not (as Frege thought) vice versa
26. Natural Theory / B. Natural Kinds / 4. Source of Kinds
The hidden structure of a natural kind determines membership in all possible worlds
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 8. Scientific Essentialism / a. Scientific essentialism
If causes are the essence of diseases, then disease is an example of a relational essence
Archimedes meant by 'gold' the hidden structure or essence of the stuff