Ideas from 'Meaning and Reference' by Hilary Putnam [1973], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Meaning and Reference' (ed/tr Moore,A.W.) [OUP 1993,0-19-875125-7]].

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10. Modality / D. Knowledge of Modality / 1. A Priori Necessary
A statement can be metaphysically necessary and epistemologically contingent
10. Modality / D. Knowledge of Modality / 4. Conceivable as Possible / a. Conceivable as possible
Conceivability is no proof of possibility
10. Modality / E. Possible worlds / 3. Transworld Objects / b. Rigid designation
Saying that natural kinds are 'rigid designators' is the same as saying they are 'indexical'
18. Thought / C. Content / 6. Broad Content
I can't distinguish elm trees, but I mean by 'elm' the same set of trees as everybody else
'Water' has an unnoticed indexical component, referring to stuff around here
19. Language / A. Language / 1. Language
Language is more like a cooperative steamship than an individual hammer
19. Language / D. Theories of Reference / 3. Direct Reference / c. Social reference
We need to recognise the contribution of society and of the world in determining reference
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 8. Scientific Essentialism / b. Scientific necessity
If water is H2O in the actual world, there is no possible world where it isn't H2O