Ideas from 'Mathematical Methods in Philosophy' by Horsten,L/Pettigrew,R [2014], by Theme Structure
[found in 'Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophical Logic' (ed/tr Horsten,L/Pettigrew,R) [Bloomsbury 2014,9781472523030]].
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5. Theory of Logic / A. Overview of Logic / 9. Philosophical Logic
18739

Three stages of philosophical logic: syntactic (190555), possible worlds (196385), widening (1990)

5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 1. Logical Form
18741

Logical formalization makes concepts precise, and also shows their interrelation

5. Theory of Logic / J. Model Theory in Logic / 1. Logical Models
18744

Models are sets with functions and relations, and truth built up from the components

7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 1. Nature of Existence
18740

If 'exist' doesn't express a property, we can hardly ask for its essence

10. Modality / E. Possible worlds / 1. Possible Worlds / a. Possible worlds
18745

A Tarskian model can be seen as a possible state of affairs

18747

The 'spheres model' was added to possible worlds, to cope with counterfactuals

10. Modality / E. Possible worlds / 1. Possible Worlds / b. Impossible worlds
18748

Epistemic logic introduced impossible worlds

10. Modality / E. Possible worlds / 1. Possible Worlds / e. Against possible worlds
18746

Possible worlds models contain sets of possible worlds; this is a large metaphysical commitment

18750

Using possible worlds for knowledge and morality may be a step too far

14. Science / C. Induction / 5. Paradoxes of Induction / a. Grue problem
18749

Goodman argued that the confirmation relation can never be formalised
