Ideas from 'Metaphysics of Morals II:Doctrine of Virtue' by Immanuel Kant [1797], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Metaphysics of Morals' by Kant,Immanuel (ed/tr Gregor,Mary) [CUP 1991,0-521-31657-x]].

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1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 1. Nature of Wisdom
Moral self-knowledge is the beginning of all human wisdom
1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 6. Metaphysics as Conceptual
For any subject, its system of non-experiential concepts needs a metaphysics
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 1. On Reason
Philosophers should not offer multiple proofs - suggesting the weakness of each of them
10. Modality / B. Possibility / 1. Possibility
That a concept is not self-contradictory does not make what it represents possible
16. Persons / A. Concept of a Person / 4. Persons as Agents
Within nature man is unimportant, but as moral person he is above any price
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / f. Ultimate value
The love of man is required in order to present the world as a beautiful and perfect moral whole
All morality directs the will to love of others' ends, and respect for others' rights
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / f. Love
The duty of love is to makes the ends of others one's own
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / a. Preconditions for ethics
Duty is impossible without prior moral feeling, conscience, love and self-respect
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / h. Expressivism
Moral principles do not involve feelings
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / a. Nature of virtue
A duty of virtue is a duty which is also an end
Virtue is strong maxims for duty
The supreme principle of virtue is to find universal laws for ends
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / c. Motivation for virtue
We are obliged to show the social virtues, but at least they make a virtuous disposition fashionable
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / d. Teaching virtue
If virtue becomes a habit, that is a loss of the freedom needed for adopting maxims
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / f. The Mean
How do we distinguish a mean? The extremes can involve quite different maxims
If virtue is the mean between vices, then virtue is just the vanishing of vice
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / j. Unity of virtue
There is one principle of virtues; the virtues are distinguished by their objects
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / h. Respect
We can love without respect, and show respect without love
Respect is limiting our self-esteem by attending to the human dignity of other persons
Respect is purely negative (of not exalting oneself over others), and is thus a duty of Right
Disrespect is using a person as a mere means to my own ends
Love urges us to get closer to people, but respect to keep our distance
We must respect the humanity even in a vicious criminal
24. Political Theory / A. Basis of a State / 1. A People / a. Human distinctiveness
Man is both social, and unsociable
Humans are distinguished from animals by their capacity to set themselves any sort of end
25. Social Practice / D. Justice / 3. Punishment / b. Retribution for crime
Violation of rights deserves punishment, which is vengeance, rather than restitution
25. Social Practice / F. Life Issues / 6. Animal Rights
Men can only have duties to those who qualify as persons
Cruelty to animals is bad because it dulls our empathy for pain in humans