Ideas from 'Metaphysics of Morals II:Doctrine of Virtue' by Immanuel Kant [1797], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Metaphysics of Morals' by Kant,Immanuel (ed/tr Gregor,Mary) [CUP 1991,0-521-31657-x]].

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1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 1. Nature of Wisdom
Moral self-knowledge is the beginning of all human wisdom
1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 6. Metaphysics as Conceptual
For any subject, its system of non-experiential concepts needs a metaphysics
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 1. On Reason
Philosophers should not offer multiple proofs - suggesting the weakness of each of them
10. Modality / B. Possibility / 1. Possibility
That a concept is not self-contradictory does not make what it represents possible
16. Persons / A. Concept of a Person / 4. Persons as Agents
Within nature man is unimportant, but as moral person he is above any price
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / f. Ultimate value
The love of man is required in order to present the world as a beautiful and perfect moral whole
All morality directs the will to love of others' ends, and respect for others' rights
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / d. Love
The duty of love is to makes the ends of others one's own
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / a. Preconditions for ethics
Duty is impossible without prior moral feeling, conscience, love and self-respect
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / h. Expressivism
Moral principles do not involve feelings
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / a. Nature of virtue
A duty of virtue is a duty which is also an end
Virtue is strong maxims for duty
The supreme principle of virtue is to find universal laws for ends
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / c. Motivation for virtue
We are obliged to show the social virtues, but at least they make a virtuous disposition fashionable
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / d. Teaching virtue
If virtue becomes a habit, that is a loss of the freedom needed for adopting maxims
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / f. The Mean
How do we distinguish a mean? The extremes can involve quite different maxims
If virtue is the mean between vices, then virtue is just the vanishing of vice
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / j. Unity of virtue
There is one principle of virtues; the virtues are distinguished by their objects
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / h. Respect
We can love without respect, and show respect without love
Respect is limiting our self-esteem by attending to the human dignity of other persons
Disrespect is using a person as a mere means to my own ends
Love urges us to get closer to people, but respect to keep our distance
Respect is purely negative (of not exalting oneself over others), and is thus a duty of Right
We must respect the humanity even in a vicious criminal
24. Applied Ethics / B. Moral Rights / 3. Animal Rights
Men can only have duties to those who qualify as persons
Cruelty to animals is bad because it dulls our empathy for pain in humans
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / a. Human distinctiveness
Man is both social, and unsociable
Humans are distinguished from animals by their capacity to set themselves any sort of end
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 5. Right to Punish / b. Retribution for crime
Violation of rights deserves punishment, which is vengeance, rather than restitution