Ideas from 'The Philosopher's Toolkit' by J Baggini / PS Fosl [2003], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Philosopher's Toolkit' by Baggini,J and Fosl,P.S. [Blackwells 2003,0-631-22873-x]].

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2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 2. Sufficient Reason
The Principle of Sufficient Reason does not presuppose that all explanations will be causal explanations
2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 3. Non-Contradiction
You cannot rationally deny the principle of non-contradiction, because all reasoning requires it
2. Reason / C. Styles of Reason / 1. Dialectic
Dialectic aims at unified truth, unlike analysis, which divides into parts
4. Formal Logic / B. Propositional Logic PL / 2. Tools of Propositional Logic / e. Axioms of PL
'Natural' systems of deduction are based on normal rational practice, rather than on axioms
In ideal circumstances, an axiom should be such that no rational agent could possibly object to its use
5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 1. Bivalence
The principle of bivalence distorts reality, as when claiming that a person is or is not 'thin'
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 3. Relative Identity
If identity is based on 'true of X' instead of 'property of X' we get the Masked Man fallacy ('I know X but not Y')
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 4. Type Identity
'I have the same car as you' is fine; 'I have the same fiancée as you' is not so good
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 7. Indiscernible Objects
Leibniz's Law is about the properties of objects; the Identity of Indiscernibles is about perception of objects
10. Modality / A. Necessity / 3. Types of Necessity
Is 'events have causes' analytic a priori, synthetic a posteriori, or synthetic a priori?
11. Knowledge Aims / B. Certain Knowledge / 5. The Cogito
In the Meditations version of the Cogito he says "I am; I exist", which avoids presenting it as an argument
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 1. Nature of the A Priori
'A priori' does not concern how you learn a proposition, but how you show whether it is true or false
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 4. Foundationalism / b. Basic beliefs
Basic beliefs are self-evident, or sensual, or intuitive, or revealed, or guaranteed
14. Science / A. Basis of Science / 6. Falsification
A proposition such as 'some swans are purple' cannot be falsified, only verified
14. Science / C. Induction / 1. Induction
The problem of induction is how to justify our belief in the uniformity of nature
14. Science / C. Induction / 4. Reason in Induction
How can an argument be good induction, but poor deduction?
14. Science / D. Explanation / 3. Best Explanation / a. Best explanation
Abduction aims at simplicity, testability, coherence and comprehensiveness
To see if an explanation is the best, it is necessary to investigate the alternative explanations
18. Thought / A. Modes of Thought / 6. Rationality
Consistency is the cornerstone of rationality