Ideas from 'Ontological Categories' by Jan Westerhoff [2005], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Ontological Categories' by Westerhoff,Jan [OUP 2005,0-19-928504-7]].

Click on the Idea Number for the full details    |     back to texts     |     expand these ideas


5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 1. Naming / a. Names
We negate predicates but do not negate names
7. Existence / E. Categories / 1. Categories
How far down before we are too specialised to have a category?
Maybe objects in the same category have the same criteria of identity
Categories are base-sets which are used to construct states of affairs
Categories can be ordered by both containment and generality
Categories are held to explain why some substitutions give falsehood, and others meaninglessness
Categories systematize our intuitions about generality, substitutability, and identity
Categories as generalities don't give a criterion for a low-level cut-off point
7. Existence / E. Categories / 2. Categorisation
The aim is that everything should belong in some ontological category or other
7. Existence / E. Categories / 3. Proposed Categories
All systems have properties and relations, and most have individuals, abstracta, sets and events
7. Existence / E. Categories / 5. Category Anti-Realism
Ontological categories are like formal axioms, not unique and with necessary membership
Categories merely systematise, and are not intrinsic to objects
A thing's ontological category depends on what else exists, so it is contingent
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 5. Essence as Kind
Essential kinds may be too specific to provide ontological categories