Ideas from 'The Social Contract (tr Cress)' by Jean-Jacques Rousseau [1762], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Social Contract' by Rousseau,Jean-Jacques (ed/tr Cranston,Maurice) [Penguin 1972,0-14-044201-4]].

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2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 2. Sufficient Reason
Both nature and reason require that everything has a cause
22. Metaethics / B. Basis of Ethics / 5. Moral Responsibility
Without freedom of will actions lack moral significance
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / a. Human distinctiveness
The act of becoming 'a people' is the real foundation of society
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / b. The natural life
Natural mankind is too fragmented for states of peace, or of war and enmity
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / c. A unified people
To overcome obstacles, people must unite their forces into a single unified power
Human nature changes among a people, into a moral and partial existence
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 2. Natural Freedom
Man is born free, and he is everywhere in chains
No man has any natural authority over his fellows
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 4. Natural Rights / b. Alienating rights
If we all give up all of our rights together to the community, we will always support one another
In society man loses natural liberty, but gains a right to civil liberty and property
We alienate to society only what society needs - but society judges that, not us
25. Society / B. The State / 1. Purpose of a State
The greatest social good comes down to freedom and equality
A state's purpose is liberty and equality - liberty for strength, and equality for liberty
The measure of a successful state is increase in its population
25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / a. Sovereignty
The sovereignty does not appoint the leaders
Sovereignty is the exercise of the general will, which can never be delegated
Just as people control their limbs, the general-will state has total control of its members
Political laws are fundamental, as they firmly organise the state - but they could still be changed
25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / c. Natural authority
Force can only dominate if it is seen as a right, and obedience as a duty
25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / d. Social contract
The social order is a sacred right, but based on covenants, not nature
The government is instituted by a law, not by a contract
25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / e. General will
If the state contains associations there are fewer opinions, undermining the general will
The general will changes its nature when it focuses on particulars
The general will is always good, but sometimes misunderstood
Laws are authentic acts of the general will
Assemblies must always confirm the form of government, and the current administration
The more unanimous the assembly, the stronger the general will becomes
We need a protective association which unites forces, but retains individual freedom
To foreign powers a state is seen as a simple individual
The act of association commits citizens to the state, and the state to its citizens
Citizens must ultimately for forced to accept the general will (so freedom is compulsory!)
Individual citizens still retain a private will, which may be contrary to the general will
The general will is common interest; the will of all is the sum of individual desires
The general will is always right, but the will of all can err, because it includes private interests
If a large knowledgeable population votes in isolation, their many choices will have good results
The social pact is the total subjection of individuals to the general will
25. Society / B. The State / 4. Citizenship
Citizens should be independent of each other, and very dependent on the state
A citizen is a subject who is also sovereign
25. Society / B. The State / 5. Leaders / b. Monarchy
Ancient monarchs were kings of peoples; modern monarchs more cleverly rule a land
The highest officers under a monarchy are normally useless; the public could choose much better
Hereditary monarchy is easier, but can lead to dreadful monarchs
Attempts to train future kings don't usually work, and the best have been unprepared
25. Society / B. The State / 5. Leaders / d. Elites
Natural aristocracy is primitive, hereditary is bad, and elective aristocracy is the best
Natural aristocracy is primitive, and hereditary is dreadful, but elective aristocracy is best
Large states need a nobility to fill the gap between a single prince and the people
25. Society / B. The State / 6. Government / a. Government
The state has a legislature and an executive, just like the will and physical power in a person
Law makers and law implementers should be separate
25. Society / B. The State / 6. Government / c. Executive
I call the executive power the 'government', which is the 'prince' - a single person, or a group
25. Society / B. The State / 6. Government / d. Size of government
Large populations needs stronger control, which means power should be concentrated
Democracy for small states, aristocracy for intermediate, monarchy for large
25. Society / B. The State / 7. Changing the State / c. Revolution
If inhabitants are widely dispersed, organising a revolt is much more difficult
The state is not bound to leave civil authority to its leaders
25. Society / B. The State / 8. Religion in Society
By separating theological and political systems, Jesus caused divisions in the state
Every society has a religion as its base
Civil religion needs one supreme god, an afterlife, justice, and the sanctity of the social contract
All religions should be tolerated, if they tolerate each other, and support citizenship
25. Society / B. The State / 8. Culture
The flourishing of arts and letters is too much admired
25. Society / B. The State / 9. Population / a. State population
A state must be big enough to preserve itself, but small enough to be governable
Too much land is a struggle, producing defensive war; too little makes dependence, and offensive war
If the state enlarges, the creators of the general will become less individually powerful
If the population is larger, the government needs to be more powerful
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / a. Nature of democracy
Minorities only accept majority-voting because of a prior unanimous agreement
If the sovereign entrusts government to at least half the citizens, that is 'democracy'
Democracy leads to internal strife, as people struggle to maintain or change ways of ruling
When ministers change the state changes, because they always reverse policies
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / b. Consultation
Silence of the people implies their consent
Democratic elections are dangerous intervals in government
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / d. Representative democracy
The English are actually slaves in between elections
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 11. Theocracy
In early theocracies the god was the king, and there were as many gods as nations
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 1. Legal Rights / c. Property rights
Private property must always be subordinate to ownership by the whole community
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 2. Social Freedom / a. Slavery
Sometimes full liberty is only possible at the expense of some complete enslavement
We can never assume that the son of a slave is a slave
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 2. Social Freedom / e. Freedom of lifestyle
Appetite alone is slavery, and self-prescribed laws are freedom
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 2. Social Freedom / f. Freedom to leave
A person is free to renounce their state, as long as it is not a moment of crisis
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 3. Social Equality / a. Grounds of equality
The social compact imposes conventional equality of rights on people who may start unequally
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 3. Social Equality / d. Economic equality
No citizen should be rich enough to buy another, and none so poor as forced to sell himself
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 4. Right to Punish / a. Right to punish
A trial proves that a criminal has broken the social treaty, and is no longer a member of the state
We accept the death penalty to prevent assassinations, so we must submit to it if necessary
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 4. Right to Punish / c. Deterrence of crime
Only people who are actually dangerous should be executed, even as an example
25. Society / E. State Functions / 2. The Law / a. Legal system
The state ensures liberty, so civil law separates citizens, and binds them to the state
25. Society / E. State Functions / 2. The Law / b. Natural law
Natural justice, without sanctions, benefits the wicked, who exploit it
25. Society / E. State Functions / 3. Taxation
The amount of taxation doesn't matter, if it quickly circulates back to the citizens
25. Society / E. State Functions / 6. War
War gives no right to inflict more destruction than is necessary for victory
29. Religion / C. Monotheistic Religion / 3. Christianity / a. Christianity
A tyrant exploits Christians because they don't value this life, and are made to be slaves