Ideas from 'Relations' by John Heil [2009], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Routledge Companion to Metaphysics' (ed/tr Le Poidevin/Simons etc) [Routledge 2012,978-0-415-49396-3]].

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8. Modes of Existence / A. Relations / 1. Nature of Relations
Two people are indirectly related by height; the direct relation is internal, between properties
Maybe all the other features of the world can be reduced to relations
We want the ontology of relations, not just a formal way of specifying them
8. Modes of Existence / A. Relations / 2. Internal Relations
Truthmaking is a clear example of an internal relation
In the case of 5 and 6, their relational truthmaker is just the numbers
If R internally relates a and b, and you have a and b, you thereby have R
8. Modes of Existence / C. Powers and Dispositions / 4. Powers as Essence
If properties are powers, then causal relations are internal relations