Ideas from 'Analogy of Religion' by Joseph Butler [1736], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Personal Identity' (ed/tr Perry,John) [University of California 1975,0-520-02960-7]].

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9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 13. No Identity over Time
A tree retains identity in a 'loose popular sense', but in a 'strict philosophical sense' it changes with its particles
16. Persons / B. Concept of the Self / 5. Persistence of Self
How can we care about our past or future without personal identity?
16. Persons / D. Self as Non-Physical / 1. Spiritual Self
If trees change identity when substance changes, unchanging persons must have a fixed substance
If we performed our past actions, we must have constant substance or properties
16. Persons / D. Self as Non-Physical / 2. A Priori Self
Consciousness of identity can't be identity; it presupposes identity is already understood
16. Persons / E. Self as Mind / 1. Self and Memory
Consciousness of past shows us our identity, but it doesn't make our identity