Ideas from 'Things and Their Parts' by Kit Fine [1999], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Midwest Studies in Philosophy' (ed/tr -) [- ,]].

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4. Formal Logic / G. Formal Mereology / 1. Mereology
Part and whole contribute asymmetrically to one another, so must differ
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 1. Unifying an Object / c. Unity as conceptual
Hierarchical set membership models objects better than the subset or aggregate relations do
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 3. Matter of an Object
The matter is a relatively unstructured version of the object, like a set without membership structure
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / a. Parts of objects
A 'timeless' part just is a part, not a part at some time; some atoms are timeless parts of a water molecule
A 'temporary' part is a part at one time, but may not be at another, like a carburetor
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / b. Sums of parts
An 'aggregative' sum is spread in time, and exists whenever a component exists
An 'compound' sum is not spread in time, and only exists when all the components exists
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / c. Wholes from parts
Two sorts of whole have 'rigid embodiment' (timeless parts) or 'variable embodiment' (temporary parts)