Ideas from 'Academica' by M. Tullius Cicero [45 BCE], by Theme Structure

[found in 'De Natura Deorum and Academica (XIX)' by Cicero (ed/tr Rackham,H.) [Harvard Loeb 1933,0-674-99296-2]].

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2. Reason / C. Styles of Reason / 1. Dialectic
Dialectic is speech cast in the form of logical argument
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 1. Truth
There cannot be more than one truth
5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 2. Excluded Middle
Dialectic assumes that all statements are either true or false, but self-referential paradoxes are a big problem
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 1. Perception
If we have complete healthy senses, what more could the gods give us?
12. Knowledge Sources / E. Direct Knowledge / 4. Memory
How can there be a memory of what is false?
13. Knowledge Criteria / D. Scepticism / 3. Illusion Scepticism
Every true presentation can have a false one of the same quality
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / c. Motivation for virtue
Virtues must be very detached, to avoid being motivated by pleasure