Ideas from 'The Essence of Reference' by Mark Sainsbury [2006], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language' (ed/tr Lepore,E/Smith,B) [OUP 2008,978-0-19-955223-8]].

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5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 1. Naming / e. Empty names
It is best to say that a name designates iff there is something for it to designate
5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 2. Descriptions / b. Definite descriptions
Definite descriptions may not be referring expressions, since they can fail to refer
Definite descriptions are usually rigid in subject, but not in predicate, position
19. Language / C. Reference / 3. Direct Reference / b. Causal reference
A new usage of a name could arise from a mistaken baptism of nothing
19. Language / C. Reference / 5. Speaker's Reference
Even a quantifier like 'someone' can be used referentially
26. Natural Theory / A. Heart of Nature / 3. Natural Function
Things are thought to have a function, even when they can't perform them