Ideas from 'Metaphysics: contemporary introduction' by Michael J. Loux [1998], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Metaphysics: a contemporary introduction' by Loux,Michael J. [Routledge 2000,0-415-14034-x]].

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8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 13. Tropes / b. Critique of tropes
If abstract terms are sets of tropes, 'being a unicorn' and 'being a griffin' turn out identical
8. Modes of Existence / D. Universals / 1. Universals
Austere nominalists insist that the realist's universals lack the requisite independent identifiability
Universals come in hierarchies of generality
8. Modes of Existence / E. Nominalism / 1. Nominalism / a. Nominalism
Austere nominalism has to take a host of things (like being red, or human) as primitive
8. Modes of Existence / E. Nominalism / 1. Nominalism / c. Nominalism about abstracta
Nominalism needs to account for abstract singular terms like 'circularity'.
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 4. Individuation / c. Individuation by location
Times and places are identified by objects, so cannot be used in a theory of object-identity