Ideas from 'Reference and Essence (1st edn)' by Nathan Salmon [1981], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Reference and Essence (2nd ed)' by Salmon,Nathan [Prometheus 2005,1-59102-215-0]].

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2. Reason / D. Definition / 11. Ostensive Definition
Ostensive definitions needn't involve pointing, but must refer to something specific
4. Formal Logic / D. Modal Logic ML / 3. Modal Logic Systems / h. System S5
S4, and therefore S5, are invalid for metaphysical modality
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 7. Essence and Necessity / a. Essence as necessary properties
Essentialism says some properties must be possessed, if a thing is to exist
19. Language / D. Theories of Reference / 3. Direct Reference / a. Direct reference
The perfect case of direct reference is a variable which has been assigned a value
19. Language / D. Theories of Reference / 4. Descriptive Reference / a. Sense and reference
Frege's 'sense' solves four tricky puzzles
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 6. Natural Kinds / f. Reference to natural kinds
Nothing in the direct theory of reference blocks anti-essentialism; water structure might have been different