Ideas from 'The Way of Truth (frags)' by Parmenides [474 BCE], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Parmenides of Elea - Fragments' by Parmenides (ed/tr Gallop,David) [University of Toronto 1991,0-8020-6908-8]].

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2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 1. On Reason
Parmenides was much more cautious about accepting ideas than his predecessors
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / a. Nature of Being
No necessity could produce Being either later or earlier, so it must exist absolutely or not at all
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / d. Non-being
The realm of necessary non-existence cannot be explored, because it is unknowable
There is no such thing as nothing
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 4. Existence as One
People who say that the cosmos is one forget that they must explain movement
There could be movement within one thing, as there is within water
The one can't be divisible, because if it was it could be infinitely divided down to nothing
Defenders of the One say motion needs the void - but that is not part of Being
Reason sees reality as one, the senses see it as many
Being must be eternal and uncreated, and hence it is timeless
Being is not divisible, since it is all alike
The one is without any kind of motion
7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 1. Nature of Change
All our concepts of change and permanence are just names, not the truth
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 1. Objects over Time
Something must be unchanging to make recognition and knowledge possible
10. Modality / A. Necessity / 5. Metaphysical Necessity
The first way of enquiry involves necessary existence
10. Modality / A. Necessity / 8. Transcendental Necessity
Necessity sets limits on being, in order to give it identity
11. Knowledge Aims / B. Certain Knowledge / 5. The Cogito
Thinking implies existence, because thinking depends on it
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 1. Perception
Parmenides treats perception and intellectual activity as the same
12. Knowledge Sources / C. Rationalism / 1. Rationalism
Only reason can prove the truth of facts
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 1. Basis of Nature
Reality is symmetrical and balanced, like a sphere, with no reason to be greater one way rather than another
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 3. Space / a. Void
The void can't exist, and without the void there can't be movement or separation
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 1. Matter / e. Greek elements
He taught that there are two elements, fire the maker, and earth the matter
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 2. Movement
It is feeble-minded to look for explanations of everything being at rest
27. Natural Reality / D. Cosmology / 1. Cosmology
He was the first to discover the identity of the Morning and Evening Stars
He was the first person to say the earth is spherical