Ideas from 'The History of the Jews' by Paul Johnson [1987], by Theme Structure

[found in 'A History of the Jews' by Johnson,Paul [Phoenix 1993,1-85799-096-x]].

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24. Applied Ethics / C. Death Issues / 2. Causing Death
Man's life is sacred, because it is made in God's image
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 11. Theocracy
In Mosaic legal theory, crimes are sins and sins are crimes
Because human life is what is sacred, Mosaic law has no death penalty for property violations
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 2. Social Freedom / a. Slavery
The Pharisees undermined slavery, by giving slaves responsibility and status in law courts
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 3. Social Equality / c. Legal equality
Mosaic law was the first to embody the rule of law, and equality before the law
29. Religion / B. Polytheistic Religion / 2. Paganism
The Jews sharply distinguish human and divine, but the Greeks pull them closer together
29. Religion / C. Monotheistic Religion / 1. Judaism
A key moment is the idea of a single moral God, who imposes his morality on humanity
Sampson illustrates the idea that religious heroes often begin as outlaws and semi-criminals
Isaiah moved Israelite religion away from the local, onto a more universal plane
Judaism involves circumcision, Sabbath, Passover, Pentecost, Tabernacles, New Year, and Atonement
In exile the Jews became a nomocracy
The Torah pre-existed creation, and was its blueprint
29. Religion / C. Monotheistic Religion / 2. Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrians believed in one eternal beneficent being, Creator through the holy spirit
29. Religion / E. Immortality / 1. Immortality
The main doctrine of the Pharisees was belief in resurrection and the afterlife
Immortality based on judgement of merit was developed by the Egyptians (not the Jews)
29. Religion / E. Immortality / 4. Heaven
Pious Jews saw heaven as a vast library