Ideas from 'On Referring' by Peter F. Strawson [1950], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Theory of Meaning' (ed/tr Parkinson,G.H.R.) [OUP 1978,0-19-875007-2]].

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5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 1. Logical Form
There are no rules for the exact logic of ordinary language, because that doesn't exist
5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 2. Descriptions / c. Theory of definite descriptions
'The present King of France is bald' presupposes existence, rather than stating it [Grayling]
Russell asks when 'The King of France is wise' would be a true assertion
19. Language / A. Nature of Meaning / 6. Meaning as Use
The meaning of an expression or sentence is general directions for its use, to refer or to assert
19. Language / B. Reference / 3. Direct Reference / c. Social reference
Reference is mainly a social phenomenon [Sainsbury]
19. Language / B. Reference / 4. Descriptive Reference / b. Reference by description
If an expression can refer to anything, it may still instrinsically refer, but relative to a context [Bach]
19. Language / B. Reference / 5. Speaker's Reference
Expressions don't refer; people use expressions to refer
If an utterance fails to refer then it is a pseudo-use, though a speaker may think they assert something