### Ideas from 'Material Beings' by Peter van Inwagen [1990], by Theme Structure

#### [found in 'Material Beings' by Inwagen,Peter van [Cornell 1995,0-8014-8306-9]].

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###### 2. Reason / D. Definition / 12. Paraphrase
 14227 We could refer to tables as 'xs that are arranged tablewise'
###### 4. Formal Logic / G. Formal Mereology / 1. Mereology
 10662 Mereology is 'nihilistic' (just atoms) or 'universal' (no restrictions on what is 'whole') [Varzi]
###### 5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 2. Excluded Middle
 17587 The 'Law' of Excluded Middle needs all propositions to be definitely true or definitely false
###### 5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 4. Variables in Logic
 17558 Variables are just like pronouns; syntactic explanations get muddled over dummy letters
###### 5. Theory of Logic / L. Paradox / 6. Paradoxes in Language / b. The Heap paradox ('Sorites')
 17583 There are no heaps
###### 7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 8. Stuff / a. Pure stuff
 17578 I reject talk of 'stuff', and treat it in terms of particles
###### 7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 9. Vagueness / d. Vagueness as linguistic
 17582 Singular terms can be vague, because they can contain predicates, which can be vague
###### 9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 1. Physical Objects
 17556 Material objects are in space and time, move, have a surface and mass, and are made of some stuff
 8264 Maybe table-shaped particles exist, but not tables [Lowe]
###### 9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 6. Nihilism about Objects
 17565 Nihilism says composition between single things is impossible
 14228 If there are no tables, but tables are things arranged tablewise, the denial of tables is a contradiction [Liggins]
 14468 Actions by artefacts and natural bodies are disguised cooperations, so we don't need them
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 1. Unifying an Object / b. Unifying aggregates
 17571 Every physical thing is either a living organism or a simple
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 3. Unity Problems / c. Statue and clay
 17562 The statue and lump seem to share parts, but the statue is not part of the lump
 17574 If you knead clay you make an infinite series of objects, but they are rearrangements, not creations
###### 9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 3. Matter of an Object
 17531 I assume matter is particulate, made up of 'simples'
###### 9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 5. Composition of an Object
 17560 If contact causes composition, do two colliding balls briefly make one object?
 17561 If bricks compose a house, that is at least one thing, but it might be many things
###### 9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / a. Parts of objects
 17566 I think parthood involves causation, and not just a reasonably stable spatial relationship
 14230 We can deny whole objects but accept parts, by referring to them as plurals within things [Liggins]
###### 9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / c. Wholes from parts
 17557 Special Composition Question: when is a thing part of something?
###### 9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 8. Essence as Explanatory
 17564 The essence of a star includes the released binding energy which keeps it from collapse
###### 9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 11. Essence of Artefacts
 17575 The persistence of artifacts always covertly involves intelligent beings
###### 9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 7. Intermittent Objects
 17577 When an electron 'leaps' to another orbit, is the new one the same electron?
###### 9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 9. Ship of Theseus
 17589 If you reject transitivity of vague identity, there is no Ship of Theseus problem
###### 9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 1. Concept of Identity
 17588 We should talk of the transitivity of 'identity', and of 'definite identity'
###### 10. Modality / C. Sources of Modality / 5. Modality from Actuality
 17572 Actuality proves possibility, but that doesn't explain how it is possible
###### 10. Modality / E. Possible worlds / 3. Transworld Objects / c. Counterparts
 17579 Counterparts reduce counterfactual identity to problems about similarity relations
###### 10. Modality / E. Possible worlds / 3. Transworld Objects / e. Possible Objects
 17590 A merely possible object clearly isn't there, so that is a defective notion
 17591 Merely possible objects must be consistent properties, or haecceities
###### 27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 3. Chromodynamics / a. Chromodynamics
 17563 The strong force pulls, but also pushes apart if nucleons get too close together
###### 27. Natural Reality / E. Chemistry / 2. Modern Elements
 17559 Is one atom a piece of gold, or is a sizable group of atoms required?
###### 27. Natural Reality / F. Biology / 2. Life
 17569 Unlike waves, lives are 'jealous'; it is almost impossible for them to overlap
 17585 Life is vague at both ends, but could it be totally vague?
 17576 If God were to 'reassemble' my atoms of ten years ago, the result would certainly not be me
 17567 A flame is like a life, but not nearly so well individuated
 17586 At the lower level, life trails off into mere molecular interaction
 17580 One's mental and other life is centred on the brain, unlike any other part of the body
 17581 Being part of an organism's life is a matter of degree, and vague
 17570 The chemical reactions in a human life involve about sixteen elements
 17584 Some events are only borderline cases of lives
 17568 A tumour may spread a sort of life, but it is not a life, or an organism
###### 28. God / B. Proving God / 2. Proofs of Reason / b. Ontological Proof critique
 17573 There is no reason to think that mere existence is a valuable thing