Ideas from 'Utilitarianism and the Virtues' by Philippa Foot [1985], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Moral Dilemmas' by Foot,Philippa [OUP 2002,0-19-925284-x]].

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3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 3. Value of Truth
We should speak the truth, but also preserve and pursue it
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / g. Consequentialism
Consequentialists can hurt the innocent in order to prevent further wickedness
Why might we think that a state of affairs can be morally good or bad?
Good outcomes are not external guides to morality, but a part of virtuous actions
The idea of a good state of affairs has no role in the thought of Aristotle, Rawls or Scanlon
23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 1. Utilitarianism
Morality is seen as tacit legislation by the community
23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 5. Rule Utilitarianism
For consequentialism, it is irrational to follow a rule which in this instance ends badly