Ideas from 'Theaetetus' by Plato [368 BCE], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Complete Works' by Plato (ed/tr Cooper,John M.) [Hackett 1997,0-87220-349-2]].

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1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 6. Despair over Philosophy
Philosophers are always switching direction to something more interesting
1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 1. Analysis
Either a syllable is its letters (making parts as knowable as whole) or it isn't (meaning it has no parts)
Understanding mainly involves knowing the elements, not their combinations
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 6. Coherence
A rational account is essentially a weaving together of things with names
2. Reason / C. Styles of Reason / 3. Eristic
Eristic discussion is aggressive, but dialectic aims to help one's companions in discussion
2. Reason / D. Definition / 4. Real Definition
A primary element has only a name, and no logos, but complexes have an account, by weaving the names
6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 1. Mathematical Platonism / a. For mathematical platonism
We master arithmetic by knowing all the numbers in our soul
7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 1. Nature of Change
There seem to be two sorts of change: alteration and motion
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / a. Parts of objects
If a word has no parts and has a single identity, it turns out to be the same kind of thing as a letter
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / c. Wholes from parts
The whole can't be the parts, because it would be all of the parts, which is the whole
A sum is that from which nothing is lacking, which is a whole
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 1. Knowledge
Things are only knowable if a rational account (logos) is possible
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 2. Understanding
Expertise is knowledge of the whole by means of the parts
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 4. Belief / c. Aim of beliefs
It is impossible to believe something which is held to be false
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 4. Belief / d. Cause of beliefs
How can a belief exist if its object doesn't exist?
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 1. Perception
Perception is infallible, suggesting that it is knowledge
Our senses could have been separate, but they converge on one mind
12. Knowledge Sources / C. Rationalism / 1. Rationalism
Thought must grasp being itself before truth becomes possible
With what physical faculty do we perceive pairs of opposed abstract qualities?
You might mistake eleven for twelve in your senses, but not in your mind
13. Knowledge Criteria / A. Justification Problems / 1. Justification / b. Need for justification
An inadequate rational account would still not justify knowledge
13. Knowledge Criteria / A. Justification Problems / 2. Justification Challenges / a. Agrippa's trilemma
Parts and wholes are either equally knowable or equally unknowable
Without distinguishing marks, how do I know what my beliefs are about?
13. Knowledge Criteria / A. Justification Problems / 3. Internal or External / a. Pro-internalism
A rational account involves giving an image, or analysis, or giving a differentiating mark
A rational account might be seeing an image of one's belief, like a reflection in a mirror
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 4. Foundationalism / a. Foundationalism
Maybe primary elements can be named, but not receive a rational account
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 5. Coherentism / b. Pro-coherentism
A rational account of a wagon would mean knowledge of its hundred parts
13. Knowledge Criteria / D. Scepticism / 5. Dream Scepticism
What evidence can be brought to show whether we are dreaming or not?
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 6. Relativism Critique
If you claim that all beliefs are true, that includes beliefs opposed to your own
Clearly some people are superior to others when it comes to medicine
How can a relativist form opinions about what will happen in the future?
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 5. Divine Morality / c. God is the good
God must be the epitome of goodness, and we can only approach a divine state by being as good as possible
29. Religion / F. Problem of Evil / 1. Problem of Evil
There must always be some force of evil ranged against good