Ideas from 'Timaeus' by Plato [349 BCE], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Complete Works' by Plato (ed/tr Cooper,John M.) [Hackett 1997,0-87220-349-2]].

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1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 1. Philosophy
For relaxation one can consider the world of change, instead of eternal things
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 2. Invocation to Philosophy
Philosophy is the supreme gift of the gods to mortals
2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 2. Sufficient Reason
Nothing can come to be without a cause
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / c. Becoming
Before the existence of the world there must have been being, space and becoming
The apprehensions of reason remain unchanging, but reasonless sensation shows mere becoming
8. Modes of Existence / D. Universals / 6. Platonic Forms / a. Platonic Forms
For knowledge and true opinion to be different there must be Forms; otherwise we are just stuck with sensations
In addition to the underlying unchanging model and a changing copy of it, there must also be a foundation of all change
Plato's Forms were seen as part of physics, rather than of metaphysics
Something will always be well-made if the maker keeps in mind the eternal underlying pattern
8. Modes of Existence / D. Universals / 6. Platonic Forms / b. Partaking
The universe is basically an intelligible and unchanging model, and a visible and changing copy of it
12. Knowledge Sources / C. Rationalism / 1. Rationalism
Only bird-brained people think astronomy is entirely a matter of evidence
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 2. Psuché
Plato says the soul is ordered by number
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 6. Determinism / a. Determinism
No one wants to be bad, but bad men result from physical and educational failures, which they do not want or choose
21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 8. The Arts / a. Music
Music has harmony like the soul, and serves to reorder disharmony within us
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 2. Happiness / d. Routes to happiness
One should exercise both the mind and the body, to avoid imbalance
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 3. Pleasure / e. Role of pleasure
Everything that takes place naturally is pleasant
25. Society / E. State Functions / 4. Education / a. Education principles
Bad governments prevent discussion, and discourage the study of virtue
25. Society / E. State Functions / 4. Education / b. Aims of education
Intelligence is the result of rational teaching; true opinion can result from irrational persuasion
26. Natural Theory / A. Concepts of Nature / 1. Nature
The creator of the cosmos had no envy, and so wanted things to be as like himself as possible
The cosmos must be unique, because it resembles the creator, who is unique
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 1. Causation
There are two types of cause, the necessary and the divine
27. Natural Reality / A. Space-Time / 2. Time / d. Beginning of time
Time came into existence with the heavens, so that there will be a time when they can be dissolved
27. Natural Reality / A. Space-Time / 2. Time / i. Time and change
Heavenly movements gave us the idea of time, and caused us to inquire about the heavens
27. Natural Reality / B. Early Matter Theories / 4. Atomism
We must consider the four basic shapes as too small to see, only becoming visible in large numbers
27. Natural Reality / G. Cosmology / 1. Cosmology
Clearly the world is good, so its maker must have been concerned with the eternal, not with change
27. Natural Reality / G. Cosmology / 2. Beginning
If the cosmos is an object of perception then it must be continually changing