Ideas from 'Phaedo' by Plato [382 BCE], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Complete Works' by Plato (ed/tr Cooper,John M.) [Hackett 1997,0-87220-349-2]].

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1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 1. Nature of Wisdom
Wisdom makes virtue and true goodness possible
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 4. Aims of Philosophy / b. Philosophy as transcendent
Philosophy is a purification of the soul ready for the afterlife
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 3. Pure Reason
In investigation the body leads us astray, but the soul gets a clear view of the facts
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 7. Status of Reason
The greatest misfortune for a person is to develop a dislike for argument
6. Mathematics / A. Nature of Mathematics / 3. Numbers / q. Arithmetic
If you add one to one, which one becomes two, or do they both become two?
8. Modes of Existence / D. Universals / 6. Platonic Forms / a. Platonic Forms
We must have a prior knowledge of equality, if we see 'equal' things and realise they fall short of it
8. Modes of Existence / D. Universals / 6. Platonic Forms / b. Partaking
Other things are named after the Forms because they participate in them
There is only one source for all beauty
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 9. Ship of Theseus
The ship which Theseus took to Crete is now sent to Delos crowned with flowers
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 3. Innate Knowledge / b. Recollection doctrine
People are obviously recollecting when they react to a geometrical diagram
If we feel the inadequacy of a resemblance, we must recollect the original
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 6. A Priori from Reason
To achieve pure knowledge, we must get rid of the body and contemplate things with the soul
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / f. Causal explanations
To investigate the causes of things, study what is best for them
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 8. Brain
Do we think and experience with blood, air or fire, or could it be our brain?
16. Persons / B. Concept of the Self / 1. Essential Self
One soul can't be more or less of a soul than another
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 3. Pleasure / e. Role of pleasure
It is a mistake to think that the most violent pleasure or pain is therefore the truest reality
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 4. External Goods / c. Wealth
War aims at the acquisition of wealth, because we are enslaved to the body
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 1. Causation / b. Types of cause
Fancy being unable to distinguish a cause from its necessary background conditions!
27. Natural Reality / D. Cosmology / 1. Cosmology
If the Earth is spherical and in the centre, it is kept in place by universal symmetry, not by force
29. Religion / E. Immortality / 1. Immortality
Whether the soul pre-exists our body depends on whether it contains the ultimate standard of reality