Ideas from 'Walking the Tightrope of Reason' by Robert Fogelin [2003], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Walking the Tightrope of Reason' by Fogelin,Robert [OUP 2004,0-19-517754-1]].

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1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 6. Despair over Philosophy
Philosophy may never find foundations, and may undermine our lives in the process
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 1. On Reason
Rationality is threatened by fear of inconsistency, illusions of absolutes or relativism, and doubt
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 9. Limits of Reason
A game can be played, despite having inconsistent rules
Humans may never be able to attain a world view which is both rich and consistent
2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 1. Laws of Thought
The law of noncontradiction is traditionally the most basic principle of rationality
2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 3. Non-Contradiction
The law of noncontradiction makes the distinction between asserting something and denying it
2. Reason / E. Argument / 3. Analogy
Legal reasoning is analogical, not deductive
10. Modality / C. Sources of Modality / 3. Necessity by Convention
Conventions can only work if they are based on something non-conventional
12. Knowledge Sources / C. Rationalism / 1. Rationalism
My view is 'circumspect rationalism' - that only our intellect can comprehend the world
13. Knowledge Criteria / A. Justification Problems / 1. Justification / c. Defeasibility
Knowledge is legitimate only if all relevant defeaters have been eliminated
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 5. Coherentism / a. Coherence as justification
For coherentists, circularity is acceptable if the circle is large, rich and coherent
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 6. Contextual Justification / a. Contextualism
A rule of justification might be: don't raise the level of scrutiny without a good reason
13. Knowledge Criteria / D. Scepticism / 2. Types of Scepticism
Scepticism is cartesian (sceptical scenarios), or Humean (future), or Pyrrhonian (suspend belief)
13. Knowledge Criteria / D. Scepticism / 6. Scepticism Critique
Scepticism deals in remote possibilities that are ineliminable and set the standard very high
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 1. Relativism
For Kant, experience is relative to a scheme, but there are no further possible schemes
Radical perspectivism replaces Kant's necessary scheme with many different schemes
18. Thought / A. Modes of Thought / 6. Rationality
We are also irrational, with a unique ability to believe in bizarre self-created fictions
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 3. Beauty
The word 'beautiful', when deprived of context, is nearly contentless
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 6. Taste
Critics must be causally entangled with their subject matter
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 5. Objectivism in Art
Saying 'It's all a matter to taste' ignores the properties of the object discussed
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / e. Human nature
Cynics are committed to morality, but disappointed or disgusted by human failings
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 4. Right to Punish / a. Right to punish
Deterrence, prevention, rehabilitation and retribution can come into conflict in punishments
Retributivists say a crime can be 'paid for'; deterrentists still worry about potential victims