Ideas from 'Chemistry' by Robin F. Hendry [2008], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science' (ed/tr Psillos,S/Curd,M) [Routledge 2010,978-0-415-54613-3]].

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7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 5. Supervenience / c. Significance of supervenience
Supervenience is simply modally robust property co-variance
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / j. Explanations by essence
Nuclear charge (plus laws) explains electron structure and spectrum, but not vice versa
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 6. Natural Kinds / b. Defining kinds
Maybe two kinds are the same if there is no change of entropy on isothermal mixing
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 8. Scientific Essentialism / a. Scientific essentialism
The nature of an element must survive chemical change, so it is the nucleus, not the electrons
Maybe the nature of water is macroscopic, and not in the microstructure
Maybe water is the smallest part of it that still counts as water (which is H2O molecules)
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 1. Matter / d. Elements in general
Elements survive chemical change, and are tracked to explain direction and properties
27. Natural Reality / B. Chemistry / 1. Chemistry
Compounds can differ with the same collection of atoms, so structure matters too
Water continuously changes, with new groupings of molecules
27. Natural Reality / B. Chemistry / 2. Modern elements
Defining elements by atomic number allowed atoms of an element to have different masses
27. Natural Reality / B. Chemistry / 3. Periodic Table
Generally it is nuclear charge (not nuclear mass) which determines behaviour