Ideas from 'Person and Object' by Roderick Chisholm [1976], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Person and Object' by Chisholm,Roderick [Open Court 1976,0-8126-9428-7]].

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1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 5. Metaphysics as Conceptual
Many philosophers aim to understand metaphysics by studying ourselves
1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 1. Analysis
I use variables to show that each item remains the same entity throughout
7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 4. Events / a. Nature of events
Events are states of affairs that occur at certain places and times
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 8. States of Affairs
A state of affairs pertains to a thing if it implies that it has some property
I propose that events and propositions are two types of states of affairs
The mark of a state of affairs is that it is capable of being accepted
8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 1. Nature of Properties
Some properties, such as 'being a widow', can be seen as 'rooted outside the time they are had'
Some properties can never be had, like being a round square
8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 10. Properties as Predicates
If some dogs are brown, that entails the properties of 'being brown' and 'being canine'
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 4. Individuation / a. Individuation
Maybe we can only individuate things by relating them to ourselves
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 4. Individuation / d. Individuation by haecceity
Being the tallest man is an 'individual concept', but not a haecceity
A haecceity is a property had necessarily, and strictly confined to one entity
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 7. Substratum
A peach is sweet and fuzzy, but it doesn't 'have' those qualities
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / b. Sums of parts
If x is ever part of y, then y is necessarily such that x is part of y at any time that y exists
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 3. Individual Essences
A traditional individual essence includes all of a thing's necessary characteristics
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 7. Intermittent Objects
Intermittence is seen in a toy fort, which is dismantled then rebuilt with the same bricks
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 5. Self-Identity
The property of being identical with me is an individual concept
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 9. Sameness
There is 'loose' identity between things if their properties, or truths about them, might differ
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 4. Sense Data / d. Sense-data problems
Do sense-data have structure, location, weight, and constituting matter?
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 8. Adverbial Theory
If we can say a man senses 'redly', why not also 'rectangularly'?
'I feel depressed' is more like 'he runs slowly' than like 'he has a red book'
So called 'sense-data' are best seen as 'modifications' of the person experiencing them
14. Science / D. Explanation / 1. Explanation / a. Explanation
Explanations have states of affairs as their objects
16. Persons / B. Concept of the Self / 1. Essential Self
I am picked out uniquely by my individual essence, which is 'being identical with myself'
People use 'I' to refer to themselves, with the meaning of their own individual essence
Bad theories of the self see it as abstract, or as a bundle, or as a process
16. Persons / C. Self-Awareness / 3. Undetectable Self
Sartre says the ego is 'opaque'; I prefer to say that it is 'transparent'
16. Persons / G. Free Will / 2. Free Will Theories / b. Determinism
Determinism claims that every event as a sufficient causal pre-condition
24. Applied Ethics / A. Decision Conflicts / 5. Omissions
There are mere omissions (through ignorance, perhaps), and people can 'commit an omission'
26. Natural Theory / A. Heart of Nature / 1. Nature
The concept of physical necessity is basic to both causation, and to the concept of nature
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 1. Causation / b. Types of cause
Some propose a distinct 'agent causation', as well as 'event causation'
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 7. Strictness of Laws
A 'law of nature' is just something which is physically necessary