Ideas from 'Modern Philosophy:introduction and survey' by Roger Scruton [1994], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Modern Philosophy: introduction and survey' by Scruton,Roger [Sinclair-Stevenson 1994,1-85619-392-6]].

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1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 4. Aims of Philosophy / c. Philosophy as generalisation
Philosophy aims to provide a theory of everything
1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 3. Necessary/Sufficient Conditions
If p entails q, then p is sufficient for q, and q is necessary for p
2. Reason / E. Argument / 4. Open Question
We may define 'good' correctly, but then ask whether the application of the definition is good
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 1. Truth
A true proposition is consistent with every other true proposition
3. Truth / E. Pragmatic Truth / 1. Pragmatic Truth
The pragmatist does not really have a theory of truth
6. Mathematics / A. Nature of Mathematics / 3. Numbers / p. Counting
Could you be intellectually acquainted with numbers, but unable to count objects?
6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 10. Constructivism / b. Intuitionism
If maths contains unprovable truths, then maths cannot be reduced to a set of proofs
8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 12. Denial of Properties
If possible worlds are needed to define properties, maybe we should abandon properties
10. Modality / A. Necessity / 11. Denial of Necessity
Hume assumes that necessity can only be de dicto, not de re
10. Modality / D. Knowledge of Modality / 4. Conceivable as Possible / c. Possible but inconceivable
The conceivable can't be a test of the possible, if there are things which are possible but inconceivable
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 1. Knowledge
Epistemology is about the justification of belief, not the definition of knowledge
11. Knowledge Aims / B. Certain Knowledge / 5. The Cogito
In the Cogito argument consciousness develops into self-consciousness
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 5. A Priori Synthetic
Maybe our knowledge of truth and causation is synthetic a priori
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 2. Qualities in Perception / c. Primary qualities
Touch only seems to reveal primary qualities
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 2. Qualities in Perception / e. Primary/secondary critique
We only conceive of primary qualities as attached to secondary qualities
If primary and secondary qualities are distinct, what has the secondary qualities?
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 3. Representation
The representational theory says perceptual states are intentional states
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 2. Causal Justification
My belief that it will rain tomorrow can't be caused by its raining tomorrow
13. Knowledge Criteria / D. Scepticism / 6. Scepticism Critique
Logical positivism avoids scepticism, by closing the gap between evidence and conclusion
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 6. Relativism Critique
Why should you believe someone who says there are no truths?
16. Persons / G. Free Will / 2. Free Will Theories / b. Determinism
Every event having a cause, and every event being determined by its cause, are not the same
17. Mind and Body / A. Mind-Body Dualism / 2. Interactionism
The very concept of a substance denies the possibility of mutual interaction and dependence
19. Language / A. Language / 7. Private Language
Wittgenstein makes it impossible to build foundations from something that is totally private
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 5. Free Rider
Any social theory of morality has the problem of the 'free rider', who only pretends to join in
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 2. Duty
Membership is the greatest source of obligation
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 3. Universalisability
The categorical imperative is not just individual, but can be used for negotiations between strangers
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 3. Space / c. Substantival space
Measuring space requires no movement while I do it
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 1. Causation / a. Causation
'Cause' used to just mean any valid explanation
28. God / C. Proofs of Reason / 2. Ontological Proof critique
'Existence' is not a predicate of 'man', but of the concept of man, saying it has at least one instance