Ideas from 'Laws of Nature' by Rom Harré [1993], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Laws of Nature' by Harré,Rom [Duckworth 1993,0-7156-2464-4]].

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4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 2. Syllogistic Logic
The Square of Opposition has two contradictory pairs, one contrary pair, and one sub-contrary pair
5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 1. Quantification
Traditional quantifiers combine ordinary language generality and ontology assumptions
5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 7. Unorthodox Quantification
Some quantifiers, such as 'any', rule out any notion of order within their range
8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 4. Intrinsic Properties
Scientific properties are not observed qualities, but the dispositions which create them
10. Modality / A. Necessity / 7. Natural Necessity
Laws of nature remain the same through any conditions, if the underlying mechanisms are unchanged
14. Science / A. Basis of Science / 1. Observation
In physical sciences particular observations are ordered, but in biology only the classes are ordered
14. Science / A. Basis of Science / 3. Experiment
Reports of experiments eliminate the experimenter, and present results as the behaviour of nature
14. Science / A. Basis of Science / 5. Anomalies
We can save laws from counter-instances by treating the latter as analytic definitions
14. Science / B. Scientific Theories / 1. Scientific Theory
Since there are three different dimensions for generalising laws, no one system of logic can cover them
14. Science / C. Induction / 5. Paradoxes of Induction / a. Grue problem
'Grue' introduces a new causal hypothesis - that emeralds can change colour
The grue problem shows that natural kinds are central to science
14. Science / C. Induction / 5. Paradoxes of Induction / b. Raven paradox
It is because ravens are birds that their species and their colour might be connected
Non-black non-ravens just aren't part of the presuppositions of 'all ravens are black'
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / h. Explanations by mechanism
The necessity of Newton's First Law derives from the nature of material things, not from a mechanism
15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 6. Idealisation
Idealisation idealises all of a thing's properties, but abstraction leaves some of them out
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 6. Natural Kinds / a. Natural kinds
Science rests on the principle that nature is a hierarchy of natural kinds
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 1. Laws of Nature
Classification is just as important as laws in natural science
Newton's First Law cannot be demonstrated experimentally, as that needs absence of external forces
Are laws about what has or might happen, or do they also cover all the possibilities?
Are laws of nature about events, or types and universals, or dispositions, or all three?
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 2. Types of Laws
Laws can come from data, from theory, from imagination and concepts, or from procedures
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 5. Laws from Universals
Maybe laws of nature are just relations between properties?
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 7. Strictness of Laws
We take it that only necessary happenings could be laws
Laws describe abstract idealisations, not the actual mess of nature
Must laws of nature be universal, or could they be local?
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 8. Scientific Essentialism / c. Essence and laws
Laws of nature state necessary connections of things, events and properties, based on models of mechanisms
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 9. Counterfactual Claims
In counterfactuals we keep substances constant, and imagine new situations for them