Ideas from 'Summa Theologicae' by Thomas Aquinas [1265], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Summa Theologicae (Concise)' by Aquinas,Thomas (ed/tr McDermott,Timothy) [Christian Classics 1991,0-87061-210-7]].

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7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / g. Particular being
Being implies distinctness, which implies division, unity, and multitude
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 2. Hylomorphism / d. Form as unifier
Humans only have a single substantial form, which contains the others and acts for them
12. Knowledge Sources / C. Rationalism / 1. Rationalism
Sensation prepares the way for intellectual knowledge, which needs the virtues of reason
15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 2. Imagination
Mental activity combines what we sense with imagination of what is not present
15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 3. Abstraction by mind
Abstracting A from B generates truth, as long as the connection is not denied
15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 5. Generalisation by mind
We understand the general nature of things by ignoring individual peculiarities
The mind abstracts generalities from images, but also uses images for understanding
Very general ideas (being, oneness, potentiality) can be abstracted from thought matter in general
Particular instances come first, and (pace Plato) generalisations are abstracted from them
Species are abstracted from appearances by ignoring individual conditions
18. Thought / E. Abstraction / 1. Abstract Thought
We abstract forms from appearances, and acquire knowledge of immaterial things
Understanding consists entirely of grasping abstracted species
18. Thought / E. Abstraction / 2. Abstracta by Selection
Mathematics can be abstracted from sensible matter, and from individual intelligible matter
18. Thought / E. Abstraction / 3. Abstracta by Ignoring
Mathematical objects abstract both from perceived matter, and from particular substance
We can just think of an apple's colour, because the apple is not part of the colour's nature
Abstracting either treats something as separate, or thinks of it separately
Numbers and shapes are abstracted by ignoring their sensible qualities
18. Thought / E. Abstraction / 8. Abstractionism Critique
The mind must produce by its own power an image of the individual species
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / d. Teaching virtue
Aquinas wanted, not to escape desire, but to transform it for moral ends
24. Applied Ethics / C. Death Issues / 3. Abortion
Aquinas says a fertilized egg is not human, and has no immortal soul
25. Society / E. State Functions / 6. War
For Aquinas a war must be in a just cause, have proper authority, and aim at good
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 1. Matter / g. Matter as extension
Bodies are three-dimensional substances
28. God / C. Proofs of Reason / 2. Ontological Proof critique
God's existence may be self-evident in itself, but it is not self-evident to limited human beings
The fool in Psalm 52 seems to conceive of God's non-existence, so His existence can't be self-evident
28. God / C. Proofs of Reason / 3. Moral Argument
Fourth Way: qualities with gradations (like goodness) depend on a maximum for that quality, so there is a supreme being
28. God / D. Proofs of Evidence / 1. Cosmological Proof
Second Way: everything has a cause, and this can't go back to infinity, so there is a First Cause
Third Way: if everything was contingent it would all have vanished by now, and it hasn't, so something must be necessary
If you assume that there must be a necessary being, you can't say which being has this quality
First Way: movement is impossible without a First Mover
If nature and human will explain everything that happens, only God can explain those things
28. God / D. Proofs of Evidence / 2. Teleological Proof
Fifth Way: everything acts ignorantly to some end, so an intelligence must provide the end
29. Religion / C. Monotheistic Religion / 3. Christianity / a. Christianity
Life aims at the Beatific Vision - of perfect happiness, and revealed truth
29. Religion / E. Immortality / 4. Heaven
Those in bliss have their happiness increased by seeing the damned punished
29. Religion / F. Problem of Evil / 1. Problem of Evil
Evil must be tolerated, because it allows God to bring good out of evil, which is a supreme good