Ideas from 'Leviathan' by Thomas Hobbes [1651], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Leviathan' by Hobbes,Thomas (ed/tr Macpherson,C.B.) [Penguin 1981,0-14-043195-0]].

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1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 1. Analysis
Resolve a complex into simple elements, then reconstruct the complex by using them [MacIntyre]
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 5. Physicalism
Every part of the universe is body, and non-body is not part of it
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 4. Sense Data / a. Sense-data theory
Appearance and reality can be separated by mirrors and echoes
13. Knowledge Criteria / D. Scepticism / 5. Dream Scepticism
Dreams must be false because they seem absurd, but dreams don't see waking as absurd
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 5. Against Free Will
Freedom is absence of opposition to action; the idea of 'free will' is absurd
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 7. Compatibilism
Liberty and necessity are consistent, as when water freely flows, by necessity
20. Action / C. Motives for Action / 1. Acting on Desires
The will is just the last appetite before action
20. Action / C. Motives for Action / 3. Acting on Reason / a. Practical reason
Reason is usually general, but deliberation is of particulars
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / d. Love
Desire and love are the same, but in the desire the object is absent, and in love it is present
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / f. Self interest
All voluntary acts aim at some good for the doer
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / h. Expressivism
'Good' is just what we desire, and 'Evil' what we hate
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / j. Ethics by convention
Men's natural desires are no sin, and neither are their actions, until law makes it so
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 1. Contractarianism
A contract is a mutual transfer of rights
The person who performs first in a contract is said to 'merit' the return, and is owed it
Hobbes wants a contract to found morality, but shared values are needed to make a contract [MacIntyre]
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 2. Golden Rule
For Hobbes the Golden Rule concerns not doing things, whereas Jesus encourages active love [Flanagan]
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 3. Promise Keeping
In the violent state of nature, the merest suspicion is enough to justify breaking a contract
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 4. Value of Authority
Fear of sanctions is the only motive for acceptance of authority that Hobbes can think of [MacIntyre]
Suspicion will not destroy a contract, if there is a common power to enforce it
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 5. Free Rider
If there is a good reason for breaking a contract, the same reason should have stopped the making of it
No one who admitted to not keeping contracts could ever be accepted as a citizen
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 7. Prisoner's Dilemma
The first performer in a contract is handing himself over to an enemy
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 8. Contract Strategies
Someone who keeps all his contracts when others are breaking them is making himself a prey to others
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / c. Motivation for virtue
Virtues are a means to peaceful, sociable and comfortable living
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / c. Justice
Injustice is the failure to keep a contract, and justice is the constant will to give what is owed
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / b. The natural life
In time of war the life of man is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short
Hobbes attributed to savages the passions which arise in a law-bound society [Rousseau]
25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / a. Sovereignty
Hobbes says the people voluntarily give up their sovereignty, in a contract with a ruler [Oksala]
25. Society / B. The State / 8. Religion in Society
If fear of unknown powers is legal it is religion, if it is illegal it is superstition
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 3. Social Equality / a. Grounds of equality
Hobbes says people are roughly equal; Locke says there is no right to impose inequality [Wolff,J]
There is not enough difference between people for one to claim more benefit than another
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 4. Legal Rights / b. Inalienable rights
If we seek peace and defend ourselves, we must compromise on our rights
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 5. Right to Punish / a. Right to punish
Punishment should only be for reform or deterrence
25. Society / E. State Functions / 1. The Law / b. Natural law
We should obey the laws of nature, provided other people are also obeying them [Wolff,J]
25. Society / E. State Functions / 1. The Law / c. Legal positivism
The legal positivism of Hobbes said law is just formal or procedural [Jolley]
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 9. General Causation / a. Constant conjunction
Causation is only observation of similar events following each other, with nothing visible in between
29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 1. Religious Commitment / a. Religious Belief
Religion is built on ignorance and misinterpretation of what is unknown or frightening
29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 2. Immortality / a. Immortality
Belief in an afterlife is based on poorly founded gossip