Ideas from 'Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy' by Thomas Mautner [1996], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Dictionary of Philosophy' by Mautner,Thomas [Penguin 1997,0-14-051250-0]].

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1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 4. Ordinary Language
Linguistic philosophy approaches problems by attending to actual linguistic usage
1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 5. Against Analysis
Analytic philosophy studies the unimportant, and sharpens tools instead of using them
1. Philosophy / H. Continental Philosophy / 3. Hermeneutics
The 'hermeneutic circle' says parts and wholes are interdependent, and so cannot be interpreted
2. Reason / D. Definition / 4. Real Definition
'Real' definitions give the essential properties of things under a concept
2. Reason / D. Definition / 7. Contextual Definition
'Contextual definitions' replace whole statements, not just expressions
2. Reason / D. Definition / 9. Recursive Definition
Recursive definition defines each instance from a previous instance
2. Reason / D. Definition / 10. Stipulative Definition
A stipulative definition lays down that an expression is to have a certain meaning
2. Reason / D. Definition / 11. Ostensive Definition
Ostensive definitions point to an object which an expression denotes
2. Reason / F. Fallacies / 5. Fallacy of Composition
The fallacy of composition is the assumption that what is true of the parts is true of the whole
4. Formal Logic / E. Nonclassical Logics / 4. Fuzzy Logic
Fuzzy logic is based on the notion that there can be membership of a set to some degree
5. Theory of Logic / B. Logical Consequence / 6. Entailment
Entailment is logical requirement; it may be not(p and not-q), but that has problems
5. Theory of Logic / B. Logical Consequence / 7. Strict Implication
Strict implication says false propositions imply everything, and everything implies true propositions
5. Theory of Logic / B. Logical Consequence / 8. Material Implication
'Material implication' is defined as 'not(p and not-q)', but seems to imply a connection between p and q
A person who 'infers' draws the conclusion, but a person who 'implies' leaves it to the audience
5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 1. Bivalence
Vagueness seems to be inconsistent with the view that every proposition is true or false
5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 1. Quantification
Quantifiers turn an open sentence into one to which a truth-value can be assigned
10. Modality / B. Possibility / 9. Counterfactuals
Counterfactuals are not true, they are merely valid
Counterfactuals say 'If it had been, or were, p, then it would be q'
Counterfactuals are true if in every world close to actual where p is the case, q is also the case
Counterfactuals presuppose a belief (or a fact) that the condition is false
Maybe counterfactuals are only true if they contain valid inference from premisses
10. Modality / C. Sources of Modality / 6. Necessity from Essence
Essentialism is often identified with belief in 'de re' necessary truths
11. Knowledge Aims / B. Certain Knowledge / 4. Fallibilism
Fallibilism is the view that all knowledge-claims are provisional
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 4. Sense Data / a. Sense-data theory
'Sense-data' arrived in 1910, but it denotes ideas in Locke, Berkeley and Hume
14. Science / B. Scientific Theories / 8. Ramsey Sentences
Mental terms can be replaced in a sentence by a variable and an existential quantifier
14. Science / C. Induction / 5. Paradoxes of Induction / a. Grue problem
Observing lots of green x can confirm 'all x are green' or 'all x are grue', where 'grue' is arbitrary
14. Science / C. Induction / 5. Paradoxes of Induction / b. Raven paradox
'All x are y' is equivalent to 'all non-y are non-x', so observing paper is white confirms 'ravens are black'
19. Language / B. Assigning Meanings / 9. Indexical Semantics
The references of indexicals ('there', 'now', 'I') depend on the circumstances of utterance
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / e. Human nature
'Essentialism' is opposed to existentialism, and claims there is a human nature
24. Applied Ethics / A. Decision Conflicts / 6. Double Effect
Double effect is the distinction between what is foreseen and what is intended
Double effect acts need goodness, unintended evil, good not caused by evil, and outweighing